Age-related modifications included decreased pitch standard devia

Age-related modifications included decreased pitch standard deviation and increased number of syllables in speech to NH-AM infants and increased number of syllables in speech to HI and NH-EM infants across the 12-month period. These results suggest that mothers are sensitive to the hearing status of their infants and modify characteristics of infant-directed speech

over time. “
“Adult observers are sensitive to statistical regularities present in natural images. Developmentally, research has shown that children do not show sensitivity to these natural regularities until approximately 8–10 years of age. This finding is surprising given that even infants gradually encode a range of high-level statistical regularities Proteasome inhibitors in cancer therapy of their

visual environment in the first year of life, We suggest that infants may in fact exhibit sensitivity to natural image statistics under circumstances where images of complex, natural textures, such as a photograph of rocks, are used as experimental stimuli and natural appearance is substantially manipulated. We tested this hypothesis by examining how infants’ visual preference for real versus computer-generated synthetic textures was modulated by contrast BMN 673 cell line negation, which produces an image similar to a photographic negative. We observed that older infants’ (9-months of age) preferential looking behavior in this task was affected by contrast polarity, suggesting that the infant visual system is sensitive to

deviations from natural texture appearance, including (1) discrepancies in appearance that differentiate natural and synthetic textures from one another and (2) the disruption of contrast polarity following negation. We discuss our results in the context of adult texture processing and the “perceptual narrowing” of visual recognition during the Tobramycin first year of life. “
“Although it is well accepted that parents greatly impact infant development, it is less clear which factors impact change in quantity and quality of parenting across infancy. This longitudinal study (N = 120 families) investigated how infant temperament and marital adjustment related to trajectories of mother and father involvement and sensitivity across infancy using multilevel models. Parental involvement (caregiving and play), infant temperament (surgency, negative affectivity, regulation), and marital adjustment were assessed from questionnaires when the infant was 3, 5, 7, 12, 14, and 20 months of age; parental sensitivity was coded from two episodes of the Still-Face Paradigm in early infancy (3, 5, and 7 months). On average, mothers showed higher levels of caregiving, play, and sensitivity than fathers. Mother caregiving, play, and sensitivity increased over time. Father caregiving and play also increased over time, whereas sensitivity did not change with age. Happier marriages were related to increased play for both mothers and fathers.

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