The tumors in the mP-PTX treated group grew more slowly than thos

The tumors in the mP-PTX treated group grew more slowly than those treated with compound screening assay saline, free PTX, and P-PTX (single dose at 20 mg PTX/kg equivalent). Moreover, mice treated with mP-PTX had no obvious ascites and body-weight loss. Histological analysis indicated that mP-PTX had no toxicity in liver and spleen, but induced massive cell death

in the tumor. In summary, this biodegradable drug delivery system has a great potential to improve performance and safety of current antineoplastic agents. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“In this work, 30 microalgae strains from 17 genera were investigated in regard to biomass productivity in photoautotrophic growth conditions, lipid amount, lipid quality and biomass degradability. Six strains could be identified with robust phototrophic growth properties and high biomass productivities equal or above 300 mgl(-1) day(-1). Anaerobic fermentation of the algal biomass was most efficient for the marine members of the genera Dunaliella and Navicula, while biogas production with the freshwater strains generally resulted in lower methane yields. Monoraphidium

contortum was identified as promising candidate A-1331852 manufacturer for liquid biofuel production, characterized by high biomass productivity during maximum growth (maximum increase of 896 mg dry biomass weight (DW)I-1 day(-1)) and a promising lipid profile. Neutral lipid production was strongly induced in M. contortum by nitrogen deficient conditions and accumulated to up to 20.4 +/- 2.2% of DW. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Longitudinal studies are helpful in understanding developmental trajectories and recognising opportunities for early intervention.

This paper describes the long-term needs and mental health of an initial sample of male juvenile offenders, now adults 6 years after their index admission to secure care. In this prospective cohort study of 97 male juvenile offenders admitted to secure, offenders were assessed initially on admission, 2 and 6 years later. Interviews were conducted with 54 offenders at the 6-year follow-up and included an assessment of psychosocial need, mental health and psychopathy. Outcome CT99021 data on offending behaviour were collected on a total of 71 offenders. Persistent offenders have needs in multiple domains as they transition into adulthood. The majority of offenders were single and about a half were in neither employment nor training. Almost nine out of ten offenders had a substance misuse disorder and a similar number met the criteria for a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder. Substance misuse in adolescence was strongly correlated with later substance misuse in adulthood, emphasising the importance of early intervention. A diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder and living with friends and family were both significantly associated with persistent offending behaviour.

“The water-soluble chitosan derivative grafted with short

“The water-soluble chitosan derivative grafted with short amylose chains (Chit-Amy-Ill) was synthesized through the phosphorylase-catalyzed enzymatic polymerization, following that the chitosan was grafted with maltoheptaose residues by reductive

amination. The chemical structures were characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR, Raman, XRD and static light scattering analyses. The results indicated that the amylose chains were conjugated with the chitosan backbone through the reductive Shiff base bonds (-CH-NH-), and the polymerization degree of the grafted amylose chains was about 25. The dispersion stability of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in water was improved through the complexation of Chit-Amy-III derivatives with SWNTs. Raman, XRD and TEM analyses confirmed that the resultant PP2 manufacturer Chit-Amy-SWNTs complex was formed by the wrapping of the Chit-Amy-III derivative around the SWNTs. The results

of electrochemical analysis indicated that the Chit-Amy-SWNTs complex modified electrode displayed excellent electron conductivity and electrocatalytic activity on H(2)O(2). (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Highly branched alpha-glucan molecules exhibit low digestibility for alpha-amylase and glucoamylase, and abundant in alpha-(1 -> 3)-, alpha-(1 ->-6)-glucosidic linkages and alpha-(1 -> 6)-linked branch points where another glucosyl chain is initiated through art alpha-(1 -> GSK3326595 nmr 3)-linkage. From a culture supernatant of Paenibacillus sp. PP710, we purified alpha-glucosidase (AGL) and alpha-amylase (AMY), which were involved in the production of highly branched alpha-glucan from maltodextrin. AGL catalyzed the transglucosylation reaction of a glucosyl residue to a nonreducing-end glucosyl residue by alpha-1,6-, alpha-1,4-, and

alpha-1,3-linkages. AMY catalyzed the hydrolysis of the alpha-1,4-linkage and the intermolecular or intramolecular transfer of maltooligosaccharide like cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase). It. also catalyzed the transfer of an alpha-1,4-glucosyl chain to a C3- or C4-hydroxyl group in the alpha-1,4- or alpha-1,6-linked nonreducing-end residue check details or the alpha-1,6-linked residue located in the other chains. Hence AMY was regarded as a novel enzyme. We think that the mechanism of formation of highly branched alpha-glucan from maltodextrin is as follows: alpha-1,6- and alpha-1,3-linked residues are generated by the transglucosylation of AGL at the nonreducing ends of glucosyl chains. Then AMY catalyzes the transfer of alpha-1,4-chains to C3- or C4-hydroxyl groups in the alpha-1,4- or alpha-1,6-linked residues generated by AGL. Thus the concerted reactions of both AGL and AMY are necessary to produce the highly branched a-glucan from maltodextrin.

Rats were implanted with microdialysis probes and the next-day in

Rats were implanted with microdialysis probes and the next-day incentive reactions and NAc shell and core DA were monitored during CS presentation and subsequent morphine (1 mg/kg) administration or Fonzies feeding.\n\nMorphine sensitization increased incentive and NAc shell and core DA responses

to morphine-CS. Morphine conditioning per se increased BEZ235 incentive reactions and NAc shell but not core DA responses to FB presentation. Morphine sensitization potentiated incentive responses but did not affect NAc shell and core DA responses to Fonzies-CS. Fonzies conditioning increased incentive reactions and NAc core but not shell DA responses to FB presentation.\n\nThese observations confirm the prediction of the incentive sensitization theory in the case of drug-CS but not of non-drug-CS. NAc DA might be differentially involved in the expression of incentive sensitization of drug- and non-drug-CSs, thus providing a clue for the abnormal incentive properties of drug CSs.”
“The FTIR and FT Raman vibrational spectra of 1,5-methylnaphthalene (1,5-MN) have been recorded using Brunker IFS 66V Spectrometer in the range 3600-10 cm(-1) in the solid phase. A detailed vibrational spectral analysis has been carried out and assignments of the observed fundamental bands have been proposed on the

basis of peak positions and relative intensities. The Optimized molecular geometry, harmonic frequencies, electronic polarizability, atomic charges, LY2835219 price dipole moment, rotational constants and several thermodynamic parameters in the ground state were calculated using ab initio Hartree Fock (HF) and density functional B3LYP methods (DFT) with 6-311++ G(d) basis set. With the help of different scaling factors, the observed vibrational wavenumbers in FTIR and FT Raman spectra were analyzed and assigned to different normal modes of the molecule. Most of the modes have wavenumbers in the expected range. The results of the calculations

were applied to simulated infrared and Raman spectra of the title compound which showed excellent agreement with the observed spectra. (C) 2010 Elsevier KPT-8602 in vivo B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The climatic stress was anticipated to increase direct and indirect risks to human health via different pathways and mechanisms. Extremely high air temperature might trigger the onset of cardiovascular events in the vulnerable. Cold-related mortality was much less understood than heat-related one, and was considered another climatic example of the effects on the human health. Increases in mortality with cardiovascular diseases in extreme heat and cold weather had been studied in many regions. These results suggested that people died rapidly from climate-change related cardiovascular diseases before they were sent to hospital.

The imprinted genes MPC, HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS6 (HDG6), and HDG3 a

The imprinted genes MPC, HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS6 (HDG6), and HDG3 are particularly interesting cases that

have different functions from their paralogs. This study indicates that a large number of imprinted genes in Arabidopsis are evolutionarily recent duplicates and that many of them show changes in expression profiles and accelerated sequence PI3K inhibitor evolution. Acquisition of imprinting is a mode of duplicate gene divergence in plants that is more common than previously thought.”
“The increasing use of eye movement paradigms to assess the functional integrity of brain systems involved in sensorimotor and cognitive processing in clinical disorders requires greater attention to effects of pharmacological treatments on these selleck screening library systems. This is needed to better differentiate disease and medication effects in clinical samples, to learn about neurochemical systems relevant for identified disturbances, and to facilitate identification of oculomotor biomarkers of pharmacological effects. In this review, studies of pharmacologic treatment effects on eye movements in healthy individuals are summarized and the sensitivity of eye movements to a variety of pharmacological manipulations is established. Primary findings from these studies of healthy individuals involving mainly acute effects indicate that: (i) the most consistent finding across several classes of drugs, including benzodiazepines, first-

and second-generation anti psychotics, anticholinergic

agents, and anticonvulsant/mood stabilizing medications is a decrease in saccade and smooth Pursuit velocity (or increase in saccades during pursuit); (ii) these oculomotor effects largely reflect the general sedating effects of these medications on central nervous system functioning and are often S3I-201 in vivo dose-dependent; (iii) in many cases changes in oculomotor functioning are more sensitive indicators of pharmacological effects than other Measures; and (iv) other agents. including the antidepressant class of serotonergic reuptake inhibitors, direct serotonergic agonists, and Stimulants including amphetamine and nicotine, do not appear to adversely impact oculomotor functions in healthy individuals and may well enhance aspects of saccade and Pursuit performance. Pharmacological treatment effects on eye movements across several clinical disorders including schizophrenia, affective disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease are also reviewed. While greater recognition and investigation into pharmacological treatment effects in these disorders is needed, both beneficial and adverse drug effects are identified. This raises the important caveat for oculomotor studies of neuropsychiatric disorders that performance differences from healthy individuals cannot be attributed to illness effects alone.

To calculate the torque of the head around the implant only the f

To calculate the torque of the head around the implant only the force and the leverarm is needed (N [Nm] = F [N] * x [m]). The force F is a product of the mass M [kg] multiplied by the acceleration g [m/s(2)]. The leverarm is the distance between the center of the head of femur and the implant center on a horizontal line.\n\nResults: Using 50% of 75 kg body weight a torque of 0.37Nm for the 1 mm decentralized position and 1.1Nm for the 3 mm decentralized position of the implant was calculated. At 250% BW, appropriate to a normal step, torques of 1.8Nm (1 mm) and 5.5Nm (3 mm) have been calculated. Comparing of the experimental and theoretical results shows that both screws fail in the

same magnitude as torques occur in a more than 3 mm de-central positioned implant.\n\nConclusion: We conclude the center-center PRIMA-1MET position in the head of femur of any kind of lag screw or blade is to be achieved to minimize rotation of the femoral head and to prevent further mechanical complications.”
“Background: Cardiac rehabilitation in patients after myocardial infarction (MI) is a component of secondary prevention that has an established role in the current guidelines.\n\nAim: To determine the effect of physical training on exercise capacity parameters selleck chemical determined

on the basis of cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in patients after MI. We also evaluated the relationship between the number of training sessions and BI 2536 exercise capacity.\n\nMethods: We prospectively evaluated 52 patients after MI who underwent percutaneous

coronary intervention of the infarct-related artery. At the start of the training, patients had no symptoms of heart failure and coronary artery disease. Electrocardiographic exercise test was performed 4 to 6 weeks after MI, followed by CPET in patients with a negative stress test. After determination of the initial exercise capacity, patients underwent 12 training sessions on a cycle ergometer with a workload determined on the basis of anaerobic threshold or heart rate reserve. After 12 training sessions, CPET was performed, followed by another 12 training sessions and a follow-up CPET.\n\nResults: All patients showed a significant increase in exercise capacity parameters: energy expenditure during CPET increased from 9.39 to 11.79 METs, peak oxygen uptake (VO(2)peak) increased from 32.32 to 39.25 mL/kg/min (p < 0.001), and oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold increased from 18.34 to 24.65 mL/kg min (p < 0.001). The initial 12 training sessions resulted in a statistically significant increase in VO(2)peak from 32.32 to 36.75 mL/kg/min (p = 0.003), while subsequent 12 training sessions were related with an insignificant increase in VO(2)peak from 36.75 to 39.25 mL/kg/min (p = 0.065).\n\nConclusions: Regular physical activity improves exercise capacity as measured by CPET.

OH-Cbl is not part of the product manufacturing process; however

OH-Cbl is not part of the product manufacturing process; however we found cyanocobalamin (CN-Cbl) in cell culture media converts to OH-Cbl in the presence of light. OH-Cbl can be released from mAb and Fc-fusion proteins by conversion with potassium

cyanide to CN-Cbl, which does SB525334 solubility dmso not bind. By exploiting the differential binding of CN-Cbl and OH-Cbl, we developed a rapid and specific assay to accurately measure B-12 levels in purified protein. Analysis of multiple products and lots using this technique gives insight into color variability during manufacturing.”
“This paper presents an uncomplicated high-yield fabrication process for creating large-scale integrated (LSI) 3-D microfluidic networks in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). The key innovation lays in the robust definition of miniaturized out-of-plane fluidic interconnecting channels

(=vias) between stacked layers of microfluidic channels in standard PDMS. Unblocked vias are essential for creating 3-D microfluidic networks. Previous methods either suffered,Hydrochloride-Salt.html from limited yield in achieving unblocked vias due to residual membranes obstructing the vias after polymerization, or required complicated and/or manual procedures to remove the blocking membranes. In contrast, our method prevents the formation of residual membranes by inhibiting the PDMS polymerization on top of the mold features that define the vias. In addition to providing unblocked vias, the inhibition process also leaves a partially cured, sticky flat-top surface that adheres well to other surfaces and that allows self-sealing stacking of several PDMS layers. We demonstrate the new method by manufacturing a densely perforated PDMS membrane and an LSI 3-D PDMS microfluidic channel network. We also characterize the inhibition mechanism and study the critical process parameters. We demonstrate that the method is suitable for structuring PDMS layers with a thickness down to 10 mu m.”
“This study, conducted within

a larger participatory action research project, explored satisfaction with end-of-life care among African Americans in a rural southeastern community. Researchers collaborated with practitioners Mizoribine molecular weight and the African American community, conducting qualitative interviews with 1 African American hospice patient, 9 primary caregivers of terminally ill patients within hospice, and 10 family caregivers outside of hospice. Results indicated a more positive experience for hospice patients, and that most nonhospice participants preferred hospice after learning about it through the study. Participants made recommendations for public information efforts, the referral and intake process, and developing a relationship with the African American community.

To determine their relative developmental functions in context, w

To determine their relative developmental functions in context, we made use of recombineered BAC constructs containing

a GFP reporter and of derivatives from which specific modules had been deleted. The outputs of the various constructs were observed spatially by GFP fluorescence and quantitatively over time by QPCR. In the context of the complete genomic locus, early skeletogenic expression is controlled by an intron enhancer plus a proximal region containing a HesC site as predicted from network analysis. From ingression onward, however, a dedicated distal module utilizing positive Ets 1/2 inputs contributes to definitive expression in the skeletogenic mesenchyme. This module also mediates a newly discovered negative Erg input which excludes non-skeletogenic mesodermal expression. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Colorectal GW4869 mouse cancer is the third most common type of cancer worldwide. However, this disease can be prevented by detection and removal of precursor adenomatous polyps during optical colonoscopy (OC). During OC, the endoscopist looks for colon polyps. While hyperplastic polyps selleck are benign lesions, adenomatous polyps are likely to become

cancerous. Hence, it is a common practice to remove all identified polyps and send them to subsequent histological analysis. But removal of hyperplastic polyps poses unnecessary risk to patients and incurs

unnecessary costs for histological analysis. In this Selleckchem FDA-approved Drug Library paper, we develop the first part of a novel optical biopsy application based on narrow-band imaging (NBI). A barrier to an automatic system is that polyp classification algorithms require manual segmentations of the polyps, so we automatically segment polyps in colonoscopic NBI data. We propose an algorithm, Shape-UCM, which is an extension of the gPb-OWT-UCM algorithm, a state-of-the-art algorithm for boundary detection and segmentation. Shape-UCM solves the intrinsic scale selection problem of gPb-OWT-UCM by including prior knowledge about the shape of the polyps. Shape-UCM outperforms previous methods with a specificity of 92%, a sensitivity of 71%, and an accuracy of 88% for automatic segmentation of a test set of 87 images.”
“We have investigated two patients with acquired chromosomal rearrangements, a male presenting with a t(1;9)(p34:q34) and B cell progenitor acute lymphoid leukemia and a female presenting with a t(8;12)(p11;q15) and the 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome. We determined that the t(1;9) fused ABL to SFPQ (also known as PSF), a gene mapping to 1p34 that encodes a polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor. The t(8; 12) fused CPSF6, a cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor, to FGFR I. The fusions were confirmed by amplification of the genomic breakpoints and RT-PCR.

Cooking losses were significantly (P smaller than 0 001) affect

Cooking losses were significantly (P smaller than 0.001) affected by thermal

treatment, being higher (29.9%) after microwaving and lower after grilling (19.1%) treatments. As expected, all the cooking methods increased TBARs content, since high temperature during cooking seems to cause an increase of the oxidation processes JPH203 solubility dmso in foal steaks, being this increment significantly (P smaller than 0.001) higher when foal steaks were roasted or microwaved. Thermal treatments led to an increase on total volatile compounds (ranging from 563 to 949 AU x 10(6)/g dry matter) compared to raw steaks (459 AU x 10(6)/g dry matter). The formation of volatile compounds seems to be related to the temperature reached by the samples during cooking, as it could be assumed from the sharp increase in volatile content observed in the roasted steaks, samples subjected to the highest temperatures. The most abundant volatile compounds in raw steaks were esters, whereas aldehydes were the main compound family in cooked samples. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: CA3 ic50 This study examines the effects of a rehabilitation program on quality of life (QoL), cardiopulmonary function, and fatigue in breast cancer patients. The program included

aerobic exercises as well as stretching and strengthening exercises. Methods: Breast cancer patients (n=62) who had completed chemotherapy were randomly assigned to an early exercise group (EEG; n=32) or a delayed exercise

group (DEG; n=30). The EEG underwent 4 weeks of a multimodal rehabilitation program for 80 min/ day, 5 times/wk for 4 weeks. The DEG completed the same program during the next 4 weeks. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), EORTC Breast Cancer-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-BR23), predicted maximal volume of oxygen consumption (VO(2)max), and fatigue severity scale (FSS) were used for assessment at baseline, and at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. Results: After 8 weeks, statistically significant differences were apparent GSK690693 cost in global health, physical, role, and emotional functions, and cancer-related symptoms such as fatigue and pain, nausea, and dyspnea on the EORTC QLQ-C30; cancerrelated symptoms involving the arm and breast on the EORTC QLQ-BR23; the predicted VO(2)max; muscular strength; and FSS (p smaller than 0.050), according to time, between the two groups. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that a supervised multimodal rehabilitation program may improve the physical symptoms, QoL, and fatigue in patients with breast cancer.”
“The progression of the disease that follows infection of guinea pigs with Mycobacterium tuberculosis displays many features of human tuberculosis (TB), and the guinea pig model of TB has been used for more than 100 years as a research tool to understand and describe disease mechanisms.

Two natural khellactone, (+)-4′-Decanoyl-cis-khellactone (1) and

Two natural khellactone, (+)-4′-Decanoyl-cis-khellactone (1) and (+)-3′-Decanoyl-cis-khellactone (2) were isolated from the rhizomes parts of A. purpuraefolia. Two compounds were

evaluated for in vitro antiplasmodial activities as well as their cytotoxic potential on SK-OV-3 cancer cell line cells. Compounds 1, 2 showed notable growth inhibitory activity against chloroquine-sensitive strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC(50); values from 1.5 and 2.4 mu M. This compound showed no significant cytotoxicity (IC(50) > 100 mu M) evaluated using SK-OV-3 cancer cell line cells. This is the first report on the antiplasmodial activity of the compounds from A. purpuraefolia. Copyright (C) 2009,John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“OBJECTIVE\n\nTo confirm the recurrence-preventing AZD6244 manufacturer efficacy and safety of 18-month bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) maintenance therapy for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.\n\nPATIENTS AND METHODS\n\nThe HM781-36B order enrolled patients had been diagnosed

with recurrent or multiple non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (stage Ta or T1) after complete transurethral resection of bladder tumours (TURBT).\n\nThe patients were randomized into three treatment groups: a maintenance group (BCG, 81 mg, intravesically instilled once weekly for 6 weeks as induction therapy, followed by three once-weekly instillations at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after initiation of the induction therapy), a non-maintenance group (BCG, 81 mg, intravesically instilled once weekly for 6 weeks) and an epirubicin group (epirubicin, 40 mg, intravesically instilled nine times). The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival (RFS).\n\nRESULTS\n\nEfficacy analysis was performed for 115 of the full-analysis-set population of 116 eligible patients, including 41 maintenance group patients, 42 non-maintenance group patients and 32 epirubicin group patients.\n\nAt the 2-year median point of the overall actual follow-up period, the final cumulative

RFS rates in the maintenance, non-maintenance and epirubicin groups were 84.6%, 65.4% and 27.7%, CCI-779 mw respectively.\n\nThe RFS following TURBT was significantly prolonged in the maintenance group compared with the non-maintenance group (generalized Wilcoxon test, P = 0.0190).\n\nCONCLUSION\n\nBCG maintenance therapy significantly prolonged the post-TURBT RFS compared with BCG induction therapy alone or epirubicin intravesical therapy.”
“von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most common inherited bleeding disorder and arises from deficiencies and/or defects in the plasma protein von Willebrand factor (VWF). VWD is classified into 6 different types, with type 1 identified as a (partial) quantitative deficiency of VWF, type 3 defined by a (virtual) total deficiency of VWF, and type 2 identifying four separate types (2A, 2B, 2M, 2N) characterised by qualitative defects.

Additionally, multifocal areas of generalized, severe emphysema a

Additionally, multifocal areas of generalized, severe emphysema and pulmonary and pleural thickening were identified. The alligator

was euthanized and necropsy revealed severe fungal pneumonia MEK162 manufacturer associated with oxalosis. Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae was cultured from lung tissue and exhibited oxalate crystal formation in vitro. Crystals were identified as calcium oxalate monohydrate by X-ray powder defractometry. Fungal identification was based on morphology, including tissue sporulation, and DNA sequence analysis. This organism is typically thought of as an entomopathogen. Clinical signs of fungal pneumonia in nonavian reptiles are often inapparent until the disease is at an advanced stage, making antemortem diagnosis challenging. This case demonstrates the value of CT for pulmonary assessment and diagnosis of fungal pneumonia in the American alligator. Fungal infection with associated oxalosis should not be presumed to be aspergillosis.”
“Flood disasters are one of the most common and destructive natural hazards

all over the world. In this paper, improved interior-outer-set model (IIOSM) based on information diffusion theory is introduced in detail to assess flood risk in an effort to obtain accurate analytical results that represent the actual situation. Then fuzzy alpha-cut technique is see more applied to calculate the fuzzy expected values under the possibility-probability distribution (PPD) calculated by IIOSM. Taking the value of alpha throughout the interval (0,1], we correspondingly get access to the conservative risk value (R-C) and venture risk value (R-V). Selection of alpha, R-C and R-V is dependent on present technical conditions and risk preference of different people. To illustrate the procedure of IIOSM and fuzzy alpha-cut technique, we employ them respectively to analyze

the flood risk in Sanshui District, located in the center of Guangdong province in China. The results, such as risk value estimations, as well as fuzzy check details expected values, i.e. R-C and R-V under the given alpha-cut level, can reflect the flood risk quite accurately. The outcomes of this research based on IIOSM and fuzzy alpha-cut technique offer new insights to carry out an efficient way for various flood protection strategies. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The global surface seawater dimethylsulphide (DMS) database ( contains > 50,000 data points and is the second largest trace gas database after carbon dioxide. However, there has been relatively little quality control on the data that have been collated to date. Furthermore, the recent development of technologies capable of high frequency (> 1 Hz) DMS measurements will have a disproportionate effect on the database in future years. At this juncture, the comparability of analytical techniques, sample handling methodologies and standards are pressing issues that the DMS community needs to address.