The presence of free rhodamine B in the final product could lead

The presence of free rhodamine B in the final product could lead to release of the fluorescence from the nanocapsule and thus unreliable results. The several spots observed for the purified

check details Fluorescent product 1 were expected since castor oil is a mixture of triglycerides and also because the rhodamine B molecule can react with one, two, or three of the hydroxyl groups presented in the ricinolein residue, which could Selleck CDK inhibitor result in products with different polarities. The FTIR and 1H-NMR spectra (Figure 3 and Additional file 1: Figure S1B) showed that the main structure of the raw castor oil was maintained after the reaction. No band characteristic of carboxylic acid was observed on the FTIR spectrum of the purified product (Figure 3), and the signal with a chemical shift of 2.3, characteristic of the hydrogen atoms of an ester, was maintained (Additional file 1: Figure S1B). This suggests that no hydrolysis of the ester bound occurred. 1H-NMR spectrum of the fluorescent product

1 showed signals with chemicals shifts higher than 5.8 and an AB system corresponding to the hydrogen atoms of the aromatic ring of rhodamine B residue. However, as previously reported, the sensitivity of FTIR and 1H-NMR techniques can be not sufficient to detect some functional groups or the protons of the dye due to their small contribution compared to the contribution of the functions and hydrogen atoms of the oil residue [12, 28]. Up to this point, the results (TLC, FTIR, and 1H-NMR) indicate that the functional carboxylic group of rhodamine B was bound to the ricinolein presented in the GS-7977 order castor oil and that a fluorescent oily product was obtained presenting good purity regarding the presence of unbound rhodamine B. UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the product 1

obtained presents maximum absorption (λ max-ab = 519 nm) in the green region of the optical spectrum and maximum Montelukast Sodium emission (Figure 4) in the yellow-orange region (567 nm). The results for the SEC analysis of the purified product 1 were consistent with the values obtained for the raw castor oil, demonstrating that the hydrodynamic volume and the size chain distribution were not modified after rhodamine B coupling to the product. The quantitative analysis of the amount of rhodamine B bound to the product indicated a concentration of bound dye of 0.517 ± 0.096 μmol per g of fluorescent oily product (n = 3). This corresponds to 1 rhodamine residue for 1,150 molecules of the product. The rhodamine-labeled triglyceride was used to prepare fluorescent NC formulations with Eudragit RS100 or Eudragit S100, providing cationic and anionic particles, respectively. Fluorescent LNC were also prepared with the rhodamine-labeled product using poly(ϵ-caprolactone) as the polymer. The liquid portion of the nanocapsule core was composed of fluorescent triglyceride (10%) and CCT (90%) (Table 1).

Magnetic hyperthermia The animals were fully anesthetized by intr

Magnetic hyperthermia The animals were fully anesthetized by intraperitoneal administration of 12 mg/kg tiletamine-zolazepam (Zoletil 50; Virbac, Carros, France) and 0.75 mg/kg xylazine hydrochloride (Rompun; Bayer, Seoul, South Korea). The animals were then TH-302 placed in the center of AC coil to generate AMF (Figure 1). An original device was connected to the coil (width 30 cm, length 30 cm) and cooling unit, which was cooled continuously by flowing water by the unit (Recirculating coolers HX-45H; Jeiotech, Daejeon-si, Korea). A high-frequency generator worked at a current of 155 Oe at a frequency of 100 kHz for magnetic hyperthermia. A 20-gauge venipuncture

catheter (BD Angiocath Plus with intravenous catheter; Becton Dickinson Korea, Gumi-si, Korea) was inserted into each tumor so that an electronic thermometer (this website Luxtron m3300 Biomedical Lab Kit Fluoroptic Thermometer; LumaSense Technologies, Santa Clara, CA) could be passed through the catheter to measure the core temperature of the tumor during the procedure. To evaluate the selectivity of heating during the hyperthermia treatment, rectal temperatures were simultaneously measured in a same manner as described above. Figure 1 Photograph of hyperthermia treatment. A) A tumor-bearing mouse is placed in the center of the hyperthermia device generating AMF. B) A thermo-sensor is inserted into the tumor by way of a venipuncture

CB-5083 solubility dmso catheter to measure temperature changes during the treatment. Bioluminescence eltoprazine imaging for the in vivo evaluation of therapeutic responses Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was performed using the IVIS lumina II (PerkinElmer, Waltham, MA). Mice were anesthetized with 1% isoflurane (Ifran, Hana Pharm. Co, Seoul, Korea) in room air. D-luciferin (Caliper Life Sciences, Hopkinton, MA) dissolved in PBS (1.5 mg luciferin/100ul PBS) was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 150 mg luciferin/kg, and serial images were acquired with an exposure time of 30 sec, an f/stop of 1, and pixel binning at 8 over 20 minutes to determine the peak bioluminescence. Subsequently, regions of interest

(ROIs) of equal size were drawn within the tumor to measure average radiance (expressed as photons/s/cm2/sr). The BLIs were performed just prior to treatment to obtain the baseline value and at 3, 7 and 14 days after treatment. By using Living Image® 4.2 software (Caliper Life Sciences, Hopkinton, MA), we measured the peak total tumor bioluminescent signal through standardized ROIs. To ensure longitudinal comparability of the serial measurements, we calculated the relative signal intensities (RSIs) by normalizing each measured peak total tumor bioluminescent signal in a mouse with the signal at baseline as follows: [RSI at a time-point = (peak signal intensity at a time-point/peak signal intensity at baseline)] [15]. Histopathological evaluations All animals were euthanized at day 14 after treatment.

Prior to scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging, the samples

Prior to scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging, the samples were coated with a 6-nm chromium

layer (Gatan PECS, Pleasanton, CA, USA). Cleaved samples were coated at a 45° tilt with the sample cross section facing the target. The SEM BAY 11-7082 nmr imaging (Hitachi S-4800, Schaumburg, IL, USA) was conducted at 5 keV, 20 μA, and 4-mm working distance. To evaluate the pattern transfer capability of SML resist, metal lift-off was performed. By electron beam evaporation, 50 nm of chromium was deposited on nanoscale SML gratings and the resulting stack lifted-off by immersing for 1 min in an ultrasonic acetone bath. Results and discussion Figure 1 presents cross-sectional micrographs of cleaved gratings fabricated in SML using the supplier-recommended developer, MIBK/IPA (1:3). SML was found to be easy to use, and it was possible to readily fabricate gratings with an AR better than PMMA in introductory attempts with both 300- (Figure 1a,b) and >1,500-nm-thick (Figure 1c) films. In Figure 1a, a uniform 5-μm-wide

array of 200-nm-pitch gratings is patterned at an exposure line dose of 3.6 nC/cm. In comparison, similar PMMA gratings can be fabricated using approximately three times higher sensitivity. Figure 1c shows a magnified image from the center of the array measuring a thickness of 282 nm and line widths ranging from 45 to 67 nm (from top to base of gratings), resulting in ARs of 4.2 to 6.3. In Figure 1c, an array of 400-nm-pitch PTK6 gratings is patterned to a depth of 1,380 QNZ nm (no clearance) using an exposure area dose of 700 μC/cm2. From top to bottom, the line widths range from 180 to 220 nm, resulting in ARs of 6.3 to 7.7. The AR results achieved using MIBK/IPA (1:3) are not optimized and can be significantly improved; however, the much lower sensitivity compared to PMMA requires a higher sensitivity developer that maintains or even improves the AR performance. PF-3084014 supplier Figure 1 Cross-sectional micrographs of

SML exposed at 30 keV and developed in MIBK/IPA (1:3) for 20 s. The panels show (a) 5-μm array of 200-nm-pitch gratings in 300-nm-thick resist, (b) magnified image with thickness of 282 nm and line widths of 45 to 67 nm from top to bottom of gratings, and (c) 400-nm-pitch gratings in >1,500-nm-thick resist (no clearance) with the achieved depth of 1,380 nm and line widths of 180 to 220 nm from top to bottom of gratings. The exposure doses were (a, b) 3.6 nC/cm and (c) 700 μC/cm2, and the aspect ratios ranged from (a, b) 4.2 to 6.3 and (c) 6.3 to 7.7. The resist was cleaved and coated with a 6-nm Cr layer before imaging. The SML contrast curves for the six developers: MIBK, MIBK/IPA (1:3), IPA/water (7:3), n-amyl acetate, xylene, and xylene/methanol (3:1) are presented in Figure 2.

After washing, FITC-labeled goat anti-mouse IgG was added at a di

After washing, FITC-labeled goat anti-mouse IgG was added at a dilution

of 1:20 amd incubated at 37°C for 40 min. After washing, the sildes were examinated by fluorescence microscopy. PCR A nested PCR was performed with primers designed to amplify the variable spacer between two conserved structures, the 3′ end of the 5S rRNA and the 5′ end of the 23S rRNA as described [14, 15]. To minimize contamination, DNA extraction, the reagent setup, amplification and agarose gel electrophoresis were performed in separate rooms. RFLP analysis The culture isolates were further analysed by RFLP to identify their genotypes as described [15, 16]. For each one, 13 μl. amplified DNA TH-302 price was digested at 37°C overnight with endonuclease MseI (New England Biolabs)

according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Electrophoresis was conducted in 16% polyacrylamide gel at 100 V for 3 h. The gels were silver stained, and bands were subsequently visualized under white light. A 50 bp DNA Ladder Marker (TaKaRa, Shuzo) was used as a molecular mass marker. Positive controls of B. garinii, B. afzelii and B. burgdorferi s.s. were prepared in the same way. Genospecies of culture isolates were identified according to RFLP profiles of each sample. RFLP profiles that differed from the known profiles of positive controls were further analysed by sequence analysis. DNA sequencing of PCR products PCR products were purified by using the Qiaquick Gel Extraction kit (Qiagen). Proteases inhibitor The nucleotide sequences were determined by a dideoxynucleotide cycle sequencing method with an automated DNA sequencer (ABI Prism 377, Perkin-Elmer). The sequences obtained in the present study were deposited in GenBank. MseI RFLP analysis of the 5S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer was performed on the basis of the DNA sequences obtained using software Vector NTI 9.0 (Lu

& Moriyama, 2004). Nucleotide sequence accession numbers The accession numbers of the 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl 5S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer sequences of culture isolates in this study are GQ369934–37. Acknowledgements We thank Dr. Bin Kang and Dr. Jing He for reviewing the manuscript. This work supported by the Special Project of the “”Eleventh Five-Year Plan”"for Medical Science Development of PLA (08Z003) References 1. Steere AC, Grodzicki RL, Kornblatt AN, Craft JE, Barbour AG, Burgdorfer W, Schmid GP, Johnson E, Malawista SE: The spirochetal etiology of Lyme disease. N Engl J Med 1983, 308:733–740.PubMedCrossRef 2. Magnarelli L, Anderson JF: Ticks and biting insects infected with the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi . J Clin Microbiol 1998, 26:1482–6. 3. Anderson JF, Johnson RL, Magnarelli AC: Seasonal prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in check details natural population of white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus . J Clin Microbiol 1987, 25:1564–6.PubMed 4. Donahue JG, Piesman AJ: Reservoir competence of white-footed mice for Lyme disease spirochetes. Am J Trop Hyg Med 1987, 36:92–6. 5.

Later, in 1968 he was

Later, in 1968 he was see more awarded the Doctor of Science at the University of Newcastle in recognition of his 4EGI-1 mouse exceptional contributions of published work in his field. The author of over

230 publications, including several books, David was made a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1976. In 1991, he received a Humboldt Research Prize, and in 2004, he received the inaugural Communications Award from the International Society of Photosynthesis Research (ISPR). For his accomplishments and a list of some of the publications, which illustrate his outstanding contributions to our understanding of the mechanisms involved in photosynthesis see: http://​en.​wikipedia.​org/​wiki/​David_​Alan_​Walker; and online information in Orr and Govindjee (2010, pp. 188, 189, 197, 198), and at http://​www.​hansatech-instruments.​com/​david_​walker.​htm. See Fig. 1 for two photographs

of David Walker taken at two different times. Fig. 1 Two photographs of David Walker taken at different times For a colorful, informative and detailed description of David’s career, including how he came to study plant biology and chloroplast function, see his memoir, “Tell me where all past years are” (Walker 1997, see also Walker 2003a). Besides his many contributions to our understanding of the photosynthetic process, David spent equal time over many years in technical developments. These include methods for the isolation of intact, fully functional chloroplasts, and oxygen electrode systems for studying SRT2104 solubility dmso photosynthesis, which were combined with chlorophyll fluorescence analysis to simultaneously measure O2 evolution and photochemistry, and the fate of energy absorbed by Photosystem II. As a science writer, David was Methane monooxygenase unique; he was both eloquent and literate. According to David, “By the time that I was four, long before infants’

school, my mother (Dorothy) and my ‘mad’ aunt had taught me to read, thereby giving me the finest gift that any child could receive. I learned to read fast and to read widely.” (Walker 1997). David’s’ ongoing goal in life was to make science accessible to, and appreciated by, the general public. His approach incorporated science, history, art, poetry, humor, nature and the environment. In addition, he agonized over science and politics, which was captured in his writing. Along with his outstanding style of writing, he also incorporated illustrations by his son Richard, making the science very accessible to the public. In August, 2004, David received “The Communications Award” from the International Society of Photosynthesis Research for his outstanding efforts to communicate photosynthesis to the general public. This was in recognition of contributions beyond his more than 200 publications in science journals. David said he appreciated the encouragement engendered by this award, his colleagues in research and friends, and that he was pleased to be a part of the international community.

Here, L-J parameters for the carbon atoms of the buckyball and ε

Here, L-J parameters for the carbon atoms of the buckyball and ε CC = 0.27647 kJ/mol as used in the original parametrization of Girifalco [33] and van der Waals interaction govern in the plate-buckyball interaction. YM155 in vitro A time integration step of 1 fs is used, and periodical boundary conditions are applied in the x y plane to eliminated the boundary effect. Single buckyball mechanical behavior Atomistic simulation result The distinctive mechanical behavior of a single buckyball should underpin the overall energy absorption ability of a buckyball assembly. The force F and displacement W are normalized as FR/Eh 3

and W/D, respectively, where R, h, D, and E are the radius, effective thickness, diameter, and effective Young’s modulus of the buckyball, respectively. Considering that bending is involved during the buckyball compression, h = 0.66

nm and E = 5 TPa [34, 35]. Here a crushing speed at 0.01 m/s is employed to mimic quasi-static loading, because the normalized force-displacement curves are verified to be the same at various loading rates from 0.1 to 0.001 m/s in trial simulations. The force-displacement response under both quasi-static and a representative dynamic impact loading (with impact speed of 50 m/s and energy of 1.83 eV) are studied, as shown in Figure  2. Two obvious force-drops could be observed in low-speed crushing, while only one prominent force-drop exists in dynamic loading which is related to the less-evident snap-through deformation shape. Figure 2 Normalized force displacement curves at both low-speed crushing and impact loading. The entire process from the EVP4593 datasheet beginning of loading to the bowl-forming morphology can be divided into four phases. Morphologies of C720 are shown at the corresponding normalized displacements. The entire compression process could be divided into four phases according to the FR/Eh 3 ~ W/D curve, i.e., buckling (W/D < 10%), post-buckling (10% ≤ W/D < 30%), densification (30% ≤ W/D < 40%), and inverted-cap-forming phase (W/D > 40%). Upon the ricochet of Florfenicol the plate, the deformation remains as a bowl shape

with great volume shrinkage. The stabilization of such a buckled morphology is owing to a lower system potential energy in the buckled configuration due to van der Waals interaction; similar energy dissipation mechanism in CNT network is also revealed by [36]. The derivative of curve undergoes a sudden change at the same W/D value but in two completely different loading rates, suggesting that the sudden force-drop points are highly dependent on the buckyball deformation see more rather than the loading rate. And theoretical insights may be obtained from the four-phase deformation. Phenomenological mechanical models Note that due to the property of FR/Eh 3 ~ W/D curve, among the phases of compression process, those with significant reduction of force (Figure  2) are relatively unimportant for energy absorption and not included in the modeling effort.

This may be the result of a reduced representation of sequences i

This may be the result of a reduced representation of sequences in the analysis arising from the few PNL Savolitinib concentration sequences reported for members of these groups. C. lindemuthianum is found clustered with the amino acid sequences of PnlA and Pnl2 of the fungal pathogen C. gloeosporioides with 100% posterior probability for Bayesian analysis as well as 96% and 99% bootstrap support for MP and NJ analysis, respectively. Pectin and pectate lyases fold into a parallel β-helix, in which a high structural conservation occurs in regions distant from the active site and particularly in those that contribute to the parallel β-helix architecture. The binding cleft and surroundings

constitute the most divergent part of the molecule, which allows variation in substrate specificity [13, 15]. On this background, the results of the phylogenetic analyses and the fact that the classification of the pectin lyases is based both on amino acid sequence similarities as well as their structural features [9], we believe that a structural comparison would help to strengthen the phylogenetic analysis and to establish a relationship

between the genes encoding PNLs with their three-dimensional structures selleck involved in carbohydrate binding. Multiple comparisons of protein structures Once the AMN-107 mouse tertiary structure of Clpnl2 was predicted, the tertiary structures corresponding to the amino acid sequences used in phylogenetic analyses and covering the central body of the enzyme including the carbohydrate-binding site of these proteins were predicted and evaluated. The multiple comparisons of protein structures led to the formation of two clusters: one

composed of the structures corresponding to the amino acid sequences of bacteria and another that was composed of fungal and oomycete structures (Figure 6). Furthermore, in agreement with the phylogenetic analyses, it was possible to distinguish the cluster formed mainly by sequences of fungi and oomycete pathogens, including Clpnl2, from the cluster formed by saprophytic/opportunistic mafosfamide fungi. Nevertheless, this analysis clustered the fungal sequences in two clearly defined groups: fungi and oomycete pathogens and saprophytic/opportunistic fungi. These results strongly support the notion that there is a close relationship between the tertiary structure of PNLs and the lifestyle of the microorganisms. The training of these groups was also observed for the elimination method FAST [66] and the hybrid heuristic URMS/RMS approach [67] using the ProCKSI-Server [52] (data not shown). Comparative modeling techniques and multiple comparisons of three-dimensional structures have been utilized for different purposes (e.g., searching for putative biological functions, drug design, protein-protein interaction studies). However, to our knowledge, this is the first study that uses a comparative analysis of protein structure in combination with a phylogenetic analysis to explore the evolution of lifestyle.

Fig  16 Regional breakdown of cumulative incremental investment c

Fig. 16 SN-38 solubility dmso Regional breakdown of cumulative incremental investment cost in the s600 scenario by 2020 and 2050 relative to the reference scenario

In a sectoral breakdown, the power sector accounts for the largest share, followed by the transport sector (Fig. 17). The power generation and transport sectors account for 59 and 19 % of the total additional investment by 2020, respectively. The large investment in FCV after 2035 pushes up additional investment in the transport sector remarkably, to 30 % by 2050. Fig. 17 Sectoral breakdown of cumulative incremental investment cost in the s600 scenario by 2020 and 2050 relative to the reference scenario Total technological cost This section assesses the total technological cost. The total technological cost is composed of investment cost and operating cost, the latter of which includes eFT-508 nmr A-769662 solubility dmso energy cost and maintenance cost. Earlier, in “Investment cost,” we presented

quantitative estimates of the investment cost. Thus, our main focus here will be the operating cost and the sum of the investment cost and operating cost. GHG mitigation technologies may affect the operating cost in two ways, by decreasing it or increasing it. Typical among technologies that decrease the operating cost is energy-saving technology, which lowers the annual energy cost by lowering energy consumption. Typical among technologies that increase operating cost are those that consume extra energy to reduce GHG emissions, such as CCS. Another cause of increased energy cost is fuel switching from low-cost to high-cost fuel: the switch from coal to natural gas, for example, may raise the energy cost. Figure 18 shows the cumulative technological cost worldwide by 2050 in the s600 scenario relative to the reference scenario. Fig. 18 Cumulative incremental technological cost in the s600 scenario The two types of effect discussed above lead to different operating cost trends in different sectors. In the power sector, energy-saving, fuel-switching, and the introduction

of CCS all take place in the s600 scenario. AZD9291 chemical structure The mixed effect leads to a decrease in the operating cost by 2050, but only a very small decrease relative to the increase of the investment cost. In the industrial sector, industries make the switch from coal to gas (see Fig. 11) and introduce CCS on a large scale in energy-intensive sectors such as iron, steel, and cement. As a consequence, the operating cost increases at an accelerated pace: by 2050, the additional operating cost is 1.9-fold higher than the additional investment cost. The operating cost in the buildings sector decreases over the long term, but this decrease is rather small relative to the increase of the investment cost. In contrast, we see a different trend, a significant decrease in the operating cost, in the transport sector.


sites were identified by sequence alignment u


sites were identified by sequence alignment using ClustalW [41] for B1 and B2 variants separately. Theoritical pIs of Aes were calculated using the program compute pI of the ExPASY home page http://​www.​expasy.​ch/​tools/​pi_​tool.​html. In vitro growth studies Competition studies of parent strains K-12 and CFT073, with their respective mutants K-12 Δaes:Kan and CFT073 Δaes:Cm (1/1 ratio), were performed in Luria Bertani (LB) and gluconate minimum liquid media. Gluconate minimal medium mimics the intestinal environment [59]. For each medium and for each competition experiment, bacteria were plated on media with or without the appropriate antibiotic and counted after 2 h (exponential phase) and 18 h (stationary phase). Each experiment was repeated twice. Biolog GN2 (Biolog, Inc., Hayward, CA) plates were used to YH25448 mw detect carbon utilisation

of 95 substrates. Utilisation of various C sources is coupled to the reduction of a tetrazolium dye and generation of a purple colour [60]. Each strain was grown in LB medium, washed and resuspended to an optical density of 0.01 at 600 nm in mineral CRM1 inhibitor medium [60]. Plates were incubated at 37°C and colour changes were measured by changes in optical density (measured on a Tecan microplate reader) at a wavelength of 600 nm. The cut-off for positive results was an optical density of 0.2. Septicaemia mouse model A mouse model of systemic infection was used to assess the intrinsic virulence of the strains [11]. For each strain, 10 outbred female swiss OF1 mice (3-4 weeks old, 14-16 g) were challenged with a standardized Selleck PD0332991 subcutaneous bacterial inoculum (2 × 108 CFU of E. coli). Mortality was assessed over seven days following the challenge. Assays were performed using the CFT073 strain as a positive control (killing 10/10 mice), the K-12 strain as a negative control (killing 0/10 mice) [61] and the CFT073 Δaes and CFT073 Δaes:Cm mutant strains. Data were analysed using the StatView software to obtain Kaplan-Meyer curves; statistical analysis was carried out using the logrank test, with p values < 0.05

considered as significant. Authors’ Information ML and CH are PhD students, OC is a research engineer, LG is a technician. PD, PT, ED and BP are researchers. Acknowledgements ML was supported by the “”Fondation pour la Recherche Oxymatrine Médicale”". We are grateful to Olivier Tenaillon for advice throughout this study, to Odile Bouvet for metabolic studies and Olivier Meilhac for protein electrophoresis. We acknowledge Evelyne Richet for providing the plasmid bearing the aes gene (pACS2). Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: Supplemental figures. A figure showing the electrophoretic patterns of esterases from various E. coli strains. Fig. S1: Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of Aes. Gels were stained using 1-naphtyl acetate hydrolysis to detect esterase activity. Esterases B was detected in strains.

J Viral Hepat 2006, 13:532–537 CrossRefPubMed 20

Gao F,

J Viral Hepat 2006, 13:532–537.CrossRefPubMed 20.

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Veracruz, Mexico. BMC Microbiol 2008, 8:117.CrossRefPubMed 24. Gubler DJ, Kuno G, Sather GE, Waterman SH: A case of natural concurrent human infection with two dengue viruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1985, 34:170–173.PubMed 25. Twiddy SS, Farrar JF, Chau NV, Wills B, Gould EA, Gritsun T, Lloyd G, Holmes EC: Phylogenetic relationships and differential selection pressures among genotypes VX-680 in vivo of dengue-2 virus. Virology 2002, 298:63–72.CrossRefPubMed 26. Craig S, Thu HM, Lowry K, Wang XF, Holmes EC, Aaskov JG: Diverse dengue type 2 virus populations contain recombinant and both parental viruses in a single mosquito host. J Virol

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