The first-line treatment of this disorder is conservative, including selleck inhibitor bed rest, oral hydration, analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and caffeine or theophylline intake. Spinal MRI, computed tomography or MRI myelography and radionuclide cisternography should be used to identify the site of the CSF leak if conservative treatment fails. Treatment is usually conservative, but autologous epidural
blood patch (EBP) has emerged as the most important nonsurgical management. Some resistant cases underwent percutaneous injection of fibrin glue and surgical repair of the dural tear is reserved for refractory cases when the site of the CSF leak is located. From among 214 patients referred to one of us (E.F.) over a 21-year period between April 1992 and May 2013, for evaluation of orthostatic headache (OH) and suspected SIH, 10 patients with negative head
and spinal MRI and normal CSF opening pressure (CSF-OP) were identified. Nine patients were women. Mean age at the time of evaluation was 37 years (range 16-65). All patients also had anxiety-depressive disorder (mild grade in 7 patients and moderate grade in 3 patients), one of them was also suffering from conversion disorder, another from pseudoseizures, and one from mild hyperlaxity joints. Median duration of orthostatic headache prior to evaluation at our institution was 9.5 months (range 3-36). Cochleovestibular symptoms were present in 4 patients. Eight patients performed the lumbar puncture in sideways (mean CSF-OP was 140.2 mmH2O KU-60019 solubility dmso [range 80-240]), while 2 in a sitting position (mean CSF-OP was 490 mmH2O [range 440-540]). On the most top of best psychiatric treatment, 9 patients performed EBP in Trendelenburg
position ex juvantibus criterium. One patient was treated with bed rest and overhydration for a short time. After mean follow-up of 21.6 months (range 6-74), 3 patient experienced a complete recovery, and 3 patients improved after EBP; the one treated with only conservative therapy improved with a low dose of aripiprazole (1 mg/day). Three patients with moderate psychiatric disorder had persistent OH. A small series of 6 similar patients has been published, in which 5 patients remained severely symptomatic and work disabled at an average follow-up of 4 years. The most likely explanation for these cases is the existence of an intermittent or very slow flow leak that would evade identification by existing imagining techniques. Alternative etiological hypotheses are of increased compliance of the lower spinal CSF space shifting the hydrostatic indifferent point downward in the orthostatic position (inducing compensatory dilation of pain-sensitive intracranial venous structures without changing CSF pressure at the lumbar level or of orthostatic CSF leakage to the epidural venous network. In this small series, it is not described whether or not the patients had psychiatric disorders in their medical history.