The physical properties of paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) inks, such as volatility, viscosity and surface tension, were optimized for piezoelectric inkjet printing, and PTX-loaded PLGA microparticles were fabricated with various geometries, such as circles, grids,
honeycombs, and rings. The resulting microparticles with 10% (w/w) PTX exhibited a fairly homogeneous shape and size. The microparticle fabrication by piezoelectric inkjet printing was precise, reproducible, and highly favorable for mass production. The microparticles exhibited a biphasic release profile with an initial burst due to diffusion and a subsequent, slow second phase due to degradation of PLGA. The release rate was dependent on the geometry, Z-IETD-FMK purchase mainly the surface area, with a descending rate order of honeycomb > grid, ring > circle. The PTX-loaded microparticles showed Alvespimycin chemical structure a comparable activity in inhibiting the growth of HeLa cells. Our results demonstrate that a piezoelectric inkjet printing system would provide a new approach for large-scale manufacturing of drug carriers with a desired geometry. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are integral membrane proteins that change conformation after ligand binding so that they can transduce signals from an extracellular ligand to a variety of intracellular components.
The detailed interaction of a molecule with a G protein-coupled receptor is a complicated process that is influenced by the receptor conformation, thermodynamics, and ligand conformation and stereoisomeric configuration. To better understand the molecular interactions
of fenoterol analogs with the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor, we developed a new agonist radioligand for binding assays. [H-3](R,R’)-methoxyfenoterol was used to probe the binding affinity Pexidartinib for a series of fenoterol stereoisomers and derivatives. The results suggest that the radioligand binds with high affinity to an agonist conformation of the receptor, which represents approximately 25% of the total beta(2)-adrenoceptor (AR) population as determined with the antagonist [H-3]CGP-12177. The beta(2)-AR agonists tested in this study have considerably higher affinity for the agonist conformation of the receptor, and K-i values determined for fenoterol analogs model much better the cAMP activity of the beta(2)-AR elicited by these ligands. The thermodynamics of binding are also different when interacting with an agonist conformation, being purely entropy-driven for each fenoterol isomer, rather than a mixture of entropy and enthalpy when the fenoterol isomers binding was determined using [H-3]CGP-12177. Finally, computational modeling identified the molecular interactions involved in agonist binding and allow for the prediction of additional novel beta(2)-AR agonists.
The first is characterized by accumulation of RPG pre-mRNA and is seen in multiple types of amino acid starvation regimes; the magnitude of splicing inhibition correlates with the severity of the
stress. The second class is characterized by a rapid decrease in both pre- and mature RPG mRNA and is seen in many stresses that inactivate the TORC1 kinase complex. These decreases depend on nuclear turnover www.selleckchem.com/products/nu7441.html of the intron-containing pre-RNAs. The third class is characterized by a decrease in RPG pre-mRNA, with only a modest reduction in the mature species; this response is observed in hyperosmotic and cation-toxic stresses. We show that casein kinase 2 (CK2) makes important contributions to the changes in pre-mRNA processing, particularly for the first two classes of stress responses. In total, our data suggest that complex post-transcriptional programs cooperate Pinometostat to fine-tune expression of intron-containing transcripts in budding yeast.”
“Polymer complexes of p-acrylamidyl sulphaguanidine (HL) with Ni(II), Fe(II) and Pd(II) salts have been prepared.
The structures of the polymer complexes were elucidated using elemental analysis, NMR, UV-Vis, IR spectroscopies, magnetic moment, molar conductance and thermal analysis. The polymer complexes were isolated in 1:1 and 1:2 (M:L) ratios. The solid monocomplexes (1:1) (M:L) were isolated in the general formula [Fe(HL)O2SO2(OH2)(2)]. The biscomplexes (1:2) (M:L) solid chelates found to have the general formula [Ni(HL)(2)X-2](n) (X = Cl-, Br-, l(-), NO3-, NCS-), [Fe(HL)(en)(OSO3)(OH2)](n) and [Ni(HL)(2)-(Py)(2)](n)X-2, while [Pd(L)X](2)(n) (1:1) (X = Cl- or Br-). In all the polymer complexes the ligand and anions were found to be coordinated to the Ni(II) find more and Fe(II) ions. The bidentate nature of the ligand is evident from IR spectra. The magnetic and spectroscopic
data indicate a octahedral geometry for complexes. The thermal behaviour of these chelates shows that the hydrated complexes loss water molecules of hydration in the first step followed immediately by decomposition of the anions and ligand molecules in the subsequent steps. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Contemporary researchers in psychiatry have sought to develop a nosology based on empirical observation, in line with the principles spelled out by Drs Eli Robins and Samuel B. Guze in 1970. For more than 2 decades, psychiatrists using neuroimaging have aspired to provide one form of “laboratory study” that Robins and Guze said would have to be in place for a psychiatric diagnosis to be valid: researchers have sought “neural signatures” of psychiatric disorders. Our objective was to examine the feasibility of this endeavor. To this end, we examine whether current psychiatric nosology as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) lends itself to the identification of neural signatures for psychiatric diagnoses.
and depletion of Rbfox3 led to changes in the expression levels of a subset of PAR-CLIP-detected miRNAs. In vitro analyses revealed that Rbfox3 functions as a positive and a negative regulator at the stage of pri-miRNA processing to precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA). Rbfox3 binds directly to pri-miRNAs and regulates the recruitment of the microprocessor complex to pri-miRNAs. Our study proposes a new function for Rbfox3 in miRNA biogenesis.”
“The diagnosis of appendicitis is difficult and resource consuming. New inflammatory markers have been proposed for the diagnosis of appendicitis, but their utility in combination with traditional diagnostic variables has not been tested. Our objective is to explore the potential of new inflammatory markers for improving the diagnosis of appendicitis. The diagnostic properties of the six most promising out of 21 new inflammatory see more markers (interleukin [IL]-6, chemokine ligand [CXCL]-8, chemokine C-C motif ligand [CCL]-2, serum amyloid A [SAA], matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-9, and myeloperoxidase [MPO]) were compared with traditional diagnostic variables included in the Appendicitis Inflammatory Response (AIR) score (right iliac fossa pain, vomiting, rebound tenderness, guarding, white blood cell [WBC] count,
proportion neutrophils, C-reactive protein check details and body temperature) in 432 patients with suspected appendicitis by uni- and multivariable regression models. Of the new inflammatory variables, SAA, MPO, and MMP9 were the strongest discriminators for all appendicitis (receiver operating characteristics [ROC] 0.71) and SAA was the strongest discriminator for advanced appendicitis (ROC 0.80) compared with defence or rebound tenderness, which were the strongest traditional discriminators for all appendicitis (ROC 0.84) and the WBC count for advanced appendicitis (ROC 0.89). CCL2 was the strongest
independent discriminator beside the AIR score variables in a multivariable model. The AIR score had an ROC area of 0.91 and could correctly classify 58.3 % of the patients, with an accuracy of 92.9 %. This was not improved by inclusion of the new inflammatory markers. The conventional diagnostic variables for appendicitis, as combined in the AIR score, is an efficient screening instrument for classifying patients Bcl-2 expression as low-, indeterminate-, or high-risk for appendicitis. The addition of the new inflammatory variables did not improve diagnostic performance further.”
“In patients with community-onset acute pyelonephritis (CO-APN), assessing the risk factors for poor clinical response after 72h of antibiotic treatment (early clinical failure) is important. The objectives of this study were to define those risk factors, and to assess whether early clinical failure influences mortality and treatment outcomes. We prospectively collected the clinical and microbiological data of women with CO-APN in South Korea from March 2010 to February 2012.
e., HOMA-IR, QUICKI) did not differ between Hp+ and Hp-subjects (all P > 0.42). However, Hp+ subjects showed significantly higher triglyceride levels and a higher total chloesterol-to-HDL ratio but lower sex-hormone binding globulin (SHGB) levels than Hp-subjects (all P <= 0.05).\n\nConclusion: While our results obtained in European severely obese patients
do not provide evidence for an enhanced IR state associated selleck screening library with gastric Hp infection, they suggest that the presence of the bacterium in gastric biopsies is associated with an adverse lipid profile and reduced SHGB levels.”
“A first-ever spinal cord imaging meeting was sponsored by the International Spinal Research Trust and the Wings for Life Foundation with the aim of identifying the current state-of-the-art of spinal Sapitinib mw cord imaging, the current greatest challenges, and greatest needs for future development. This meeting was attended by a small group of invited experts spanning all aspects of spinal cord imaging from basic research to clinical practice. The greatest current challenges
for spinal cord imaging were identified as arising from the imaging environment itself; difficult imaging environment created by the bone surrounding the spinal canal, physiological motion of the cord and adjacent tissues, and small crosssectional dimensions of the spinal cord, exacerbated by metallic implants often present in injured patients. Challenges were also identified as a result of a lack of “critical mass” of researchers taking on the development of spinal cord imaging, affecting both the rate of progress in the field, and the demand for equipment and software to manufacturers to produce the necessary tools. Here we define the current state-of-the-art of spinal cord imaging, discuss the underlying theory and challenges, and present the evidence for the current and potential power of these methods. click here In two review papers (part I and part II), we propose that the challenges can be overcome with advances in methods, improving availability and effectiveness of methods, and linking existing researdhers to create the necessary
scientific and clinical network to advance the rate of progress and impact of the research. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Surgical excision combined with radio-chemotherapy represents the gold standard of therapy of medulloblastoma. The effectiveness of such a combined treatment has encouraged the use of radiotherapy even in young paediatric patients, in spite of the many adverse effects reported in literature, and, in particular, the increased risk of a second radioinduced malignancy. Irradiation is the well-known risk factor for development of benign and malignant thyroid tumours. Children are more exposed to this risk because of their thyroid gland is more sensitive to carcinogenic effect of ionising radiation.
Sequence analysis demonstrates that this deletion has occurred between two Alu-Sq2 repetitive sequences in the same orientation, respectively, in introns 9 and 10. We suggest click here that this mutation POLH NG 009252.1: g. 36847 40771del3925 is caused by an equal crossover event that occurred between
two homologous chromosomes at meiosis. These results allowed us to develop a simple test based on a simple PCR in order to screen suspected XP-V patients. In Tunisia, the prevalence of XP-V group seems to be underestimated and clinical diagnosis is usually later. Cascade screening of this founder mutation by PCR in regions with high frequency of XP provides a rapid and cost-effective tool for early diagnosis of XP-V in Tunisia and North Africa.”
“Objective To assess the effectiveness of facility-based care for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in malnutrition treatment centres (MTC). Design Early detection and treatment of SAM using locally adapted protocols; assessment of programme outcomes, including survival, default, discharge and recovery rates. Setting All forty-eight
MTC in Jharkhand, India. Subjects Children (n 3595) with SAM admitted to MTC (1 July 2009-30 June 2011). Results Of children admitted, 550 % were girls, 777 % were 6-23 months Nutlin-3 nmr old and 686 % belonged to scheduled tribes or castes; 344 % had oedema or medical complications. Of the 3418 programme exits, the proportion of children who died was 06 % (n 20), the proportion of children who defaulted was 184 % (n 628) and the proportion of children discharged was 810 % (n 2770). Children’s average weight gain was 96 (sd 84) g/kg body weight per d and their average length of stay was 160 (sd 57) d. Among the 2770 children who were discharged from the programme, 394 % (n 1090) gained 15 % or more of their initial weight while 606 % (n 1680) gained less than 15 % of their initial weight. Conclusions MTC provide live-saving care for children
with SAM as demonstrated by high LB-100 survival rates. However, the protocols and therapeutic foods currently used need to improve to ensure the recovery of all discharged children. MTC should be reserved for children with complicated SAM; children with uncomplicated SAM should be admitted to a community-based programme for the management of SAM, at a lesser risk to children and a lesser cost to families and the health system.”
“Diverticulosis and colorectal polyps increase in frequency as the population ages. Proposed common mechanisms for both include lack of dietary fiber, increased saturated fats, and slow colonic transit time. The association of diverticulosis and colorectal polyps has been previously reported with conflicting results. Despite sharing common epidemiologic predisposing factors, the association between diverticulosis and colon polyps remains unclear and needs better clarification.
The present study applied this novel method to a noninvasive blood pressure monitor (NBPM).\n\nMETHODS\n\nWe enrolled 50 patients (37 men, age range 30-84 years) referred for cardiac catheterization. Invasive right brachial and central aortic pressures (using a dual-sensor pressure catheter), and noninvasive left brachial SBP and diastolic blood pressure
(DBP), and PVP waveform (using a customized NBPM) were simultaneously recorded. Central SBP was estimated by analysis of the PVP waveform calibrated to the noninvasive SBP and DBP, using both the original (CSBP-O) and the newly generated (CSBP-N) regression equations. The reproducibility of the invasive central SBP by CSBP-O and CSBP-N was examined using the AL3818 datasheet concordance correlation coefficient.\n\nRESULTS\n\nOverall, the invasive central aortic SBP ranged 86-176 with a mean of 124 +/- 21 mm Hg. The mean differences between the estimated and the invasive central SBP were -1.3 +/- 6.7 mm Hg for CSBP-O and 0.0 +/- 6.2 mm Hg for CSBP-N, respectively. The concordance correlation coefficients for CSBP-O and CSBP-N were 0.94 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93-0.94) and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.95-0.96), and both were significantly better than that for the noninvasive brachial SBP (0.87, 0.84-0.91) indicated by non-overlapping CIs.\n\nCONCLUSIONS\n\nThe PVP method for
noninvasive estimation of central SBP can be applied to a commonly used NBPM. Whether the NBPM-derived central SBP is superior to the noninvasive brachial SBP in the prediction GDC-0032 4-Hydroxytamoxifen ic50 of cardiovascular risks remains to be investigated.”
“Soil tillage and straw management are both known to affect soil organic matter dynamics. However, it is still unclear whether, or how, these two practices interact to affect soil C storage, and data from long term studies are scarce. Soil C models may help to overcome some of these problems. Here we compare direct measurements of soil C contents from a 9 year old tillage experiment to predictions made by RothC and a cohort model. Soil samples were collected from plots in an Irish winter
wheat field that were exposed to either conventional (CT) or shallow non-inversion tillage (RT). Crop residue was removed from half of the RT and CT plots after harvest, allowing us to test for interactive effects between tillage practices and straw management. Within the 0-30 cm layer, soil C contents were significantly increased both by straw retention and by RT. Tillage and straw management did not interact to determine the total amount of soil C in this layer. The highest average soil C contents (68.9 +/- 2.8 Mg C ha(-1)) were found for the combination of RT with straw incorporation, whereas the lowest average soil C contents (57.3 +/- 2.3 Mg C ha(-1)) were found for CT with straw removal. We found no significant treatment effects on soil C contents at lower depths. Both models suggest that at our site, RI stimulates soil C storage largely by decreasing the decomposition of old soil C.
This was largely due to initiation of products containing only ergocalciferol or cholecalciferol. The odds of supplementation were greater in older, female,
non-Black, married participants with greater education and lower body mass index. Among participants taking supplementation, dose was positively associated with 25(OH) D level, adjusted for race, season, diabetes, dietary intake, eGFR, and proteinuria. Only 3.8% of non-Black and 16.5% of Black participants taking a supplement were deficient ( smaller than 20 ng/mL), whereas 22.7% of non-Black and 62.4% of Black participants not reporting supplement use were deficient. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation rates rose significantly among CRIC participants over 7 years of follow-up and were associated with greater serum 25(OH) D levels. Studies of vitamin D levels on clinical outcomes in CKD and future vitamin D interventional β-Nicotinamide price studies should consider these changes in supplementation practices. (C) 2014 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objective To determine whether a midwife-led intervention improved preparation for twin parenting and
maternal psychosocial outcome. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Two maternity units in North East England. Population A cohort of 162 women with uncomplicated twin pregnancy. Methods Self-completion questionnaire at multiple time points. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was probable postnatal depression (measured with RG7420 the Edinburgh Postnatal
Depression Scale, EPDS) 26 weeks after delivery. Secondary outcomes included preparation for parenting, maternal anxiety, parenting stress, and maternal wellbeing. Results The mean maternal EPDS scores at 26 weeks after delivery were 5.4 (SD 4.5) in the twin intervention (TI) group and 6.9 (SD 5.5) in the twin control (TC) group, and the mean difference between the groups was 1.5 (95% confidence interval, 95% CI, -0.2 to 3.3). The relative risk (RR) of having probable depression in the TI group compared with the TC group at 26 weeks was 0.48 (95% CI 0.19-1.20) for mothers and 0.84 (95% CI 0.42-1.70) for fathers. There were no statistically significant differences in maternal anxiety or parenting stress. TI mothers reported increased maternal wellbeing, reaction to motherhood, this website family support, mood, and greater self-confidence 26 weeks after delivery, and felt more prepared for parenting. Conclusion As a result of the limited sample size, the study was unable to detect a difference in maternal depression using the maternal EPDS mean score. The antenatal preparation for parenting programme did not improve postnatal maternal anxiety or parenting stress; however, it did improve postnatal maternal wellbeing, mood, self-confidence, reaction to motherhood, and better prepared mothers to parent twin infants. Midwives have a key role in preparing mothers to parent twins.”
“Patients with potential bone and soft tissue tumors can be challenging for orthopedic surgeons.
\n\nObjective To determine whether accreditation performance is associated with self-reported clinical performance and independent ratings of four aspects of organisational performance.\n\nDesign Independent blinded assessment of these variables in a random, stratified sample of health service organisations.\n\nSettings Acute care: large, medium and small health-service organisations in Australia.\n\nStudy participants Nineteen health service organisations employing 16 448 staff treating 321 289 inpatients
and 1 971 087 non-inpatient services Etomoxir Metabolism inhibitor annually, representing approximately 5% of the Australian acute care health system.\n\nMain measures Correlations of accreditation performance with organisational culture, organisational climate, consumer involvement, leadership and clinical performance.\n\nResults Accreditation performance was significantly positively correlated with organisational culture (rho=0.618, p=0.005) and leadership (rho=0.616, p=0.005).
There was a trend between accreditation and clinical performance (rho=0.450, p=0.080). Accreditation was unrelated to organisational climate (rho=0.378, p=0.110) and consumer involvement (rho=0.215, p=0.377).\n\nConclusions Accreditation results predict buy AZ 628 leadership behaviours and cultural characteristics of healthcare organisations but not organisational climate or consumer participation, and a positive trend between accreditation and clinical performance is noted.”
“Recent studies report that multifunctionality-the simultaneous provision of multiple ecosystem functions-in drylands depends on biodiversity. Others report that specific size distributions of vegetation patches indicate overall ecosystem health and function. Using a biocrust BIBF 1120 manufacturer (micro-vegetation of mosses, lichens, and cyanobacteria) model system, and multivariate modeling, we determined
the relative importance of biodiversity, patch-size distribution, and total abundance to nutrient cycling and multifunctionality. In most cases we explained at least 20%, and up to 65%, of the variation in ecosystem functions, and 42% of the variation in multifunctionality. Species richness was the most important determinant of C cycling, constituting an uncommonly clear link between diversity and function in a non-experimental field setting. Regarding C cycling in gypsiferous soils, we found that patch size distributions with a greater frequency of small to medium patches, as opposed to very small patches, were more highly functional. Nitrogen cycling was largely a function of biocrust cover in two soil types, whereas in gypsiferous soils, more central-tending patch size distributions were less functional with regards to N cycling. All three community properties were about equally important to multifunctionality.
“Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the value of estimated glomerular filtration
rate (eGFR) calculated by different formulas for predicting the risk of death in heart failure (HF) outpatients.\n\nBackground Patients with both HF and renal insufficiency have a poor prognosis. Three formulas are mostly used to assess renal function: Cockroft-Gault selleck products formula, MDRD-4 (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study) formula, and the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. The prognostic values of these formulas have not been adequately compared in HF patients.\n\nMethods A total of 925 patients (72% men; age 69 years; interquartile range: 59 to 75.5 years) with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 31% (interquartile range: 23.5% to 39%) were studied. Follow-up was 1,202 days (interquartile range: 627.5 to 2,156.5 days). Measures of performance were evaluated using continuous data and by dividing patients into 4 subgroups according to the eGFR: >90, 89 to 60, <60 to 30, and <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2).\n\nResults The 3 formulas correlated significantly, with the best correlation found between the MDRD-4 and CKD-EPI formulas. The 3 formulas afforded independent prognostic
information over long-term follow-up. However, risk prediction was most accurate using the Cockroft-Gault formula as evaluated by Cox proportional hazards models (hazard Combretastatin A4 ratio: 0.75 vs. 0.81 with the MDRD-4 formula and 0.80 with the CKD-EPI equation), area under the curve (0.67 vs. 0.62 and 0.64, respectively), and Bayesian information criterion (both
analyzing eGFR as a continuous or categorical variable). Indeed, net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement using the Cockroft-Gault formula were 21% and 5.04, respectively, versus the MDRD-4 formula (the most used) and 13.1% and 3.77 respectively versus CKD-EPI equation (the more recent) (all p values <0.001).\n\nConclusions In this ambulatory, real-life cohort of HF patients, the Cockroft-Gault formula was the most accurate of the 3 used eGFR formulas to improve the risk stratification PLX4032 cell line for death. (J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;59:1709-15) (C) 2012 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation”
“The extraordinary diversity of herbivorous beetles is usually attributed to coevolution with angiosperms. However, the degree and nature of contemporaneity in beetle and angiosperm diversification remain unclear. Here we present a large-scale molecular phylogeny for weevils (herbivorous beetles in the superfamily Curculionoidea), one of the most diverse lineages of insects, based on approximate to 8 kilobases of DNA sequence data from a worldwide sample including all families and subfamilies.
All inter-group differences were statistically significant (P smaller than 0.05). Conclusion: The EORTC QLQ-LC43 is a reliable and valid instrument in patients with lung cancer and is appropriate for measuring the QoL of Histone Methyltransf inhibitor Chinese patients. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
determine relative concentrations of selected major brain tissue metabolites and their ratios and lobar variations by use of 3-T proton (hydrogen 1 [H-1]) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the brain of healthy dogs. Animals-10 healthy Beagles. Procedures-3-T H-1 MRS at echo times of 144 and 35 milliseconds was performed on 5 transverse slices and 1 sagittal slice of representative brain lobe regions. Intravoxel parenchyma was classified as white matter, gray matter, or mixed (gray and white) and analyzed for relative concentrations
(in arbitrary units) of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline, and creatine (ie, height at position of peak on MRS graph) as well as their ratios (NAA-to-choline, NAA-to-creatine, and choline-to-creatine ratios). Peak heights for metabolites were compared between echo times. Peak heights for metabolites and their ratios were correlated and evaluated among matter types. Yield was calculated as interpretable voxels divided by available lobar voxels. Results-Reference ranges of the metabolite concentration ratios were determined at an echo time of 35 milliseconds (NAA-to-choline ratio, 1.055 to 2.224; NAA-to-creatine ratio, 1.103 to 2.161; choline-to-creatine ratio, 0.759 to 1.332) and 144 milliseconds (NAA-to-choline Androgen Receptor Antagonist ratio, 0.687 to 1.788; NAA-to-creatine Metabolism inhibitor ratio, 0.984 to 2.044; choline-to-creatine ratio, 0.828
to 1.853). Metabolite concentration ratios were greater in white matter than in gray matter. Voxel yields ranged from 43% for the temporal lobe to 100% for the thalamus. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Metabolite concentrations and concentration ratios determined with 3-T H-1 MRS were not identical to those in humans and were determined for clinical and research investigations of canine brain disease.”
“Mucosal-associated invariant T lymphocytes (MAIT lymphocytes) are characterized by two evolutionarily conserved features: an invariant T cell antigen receptor (TCR)alpha-chain and restriction by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-related protein MR1. Here we show that MAIT cells were activated by cells infected with various strains of bacteria and yeast, but not cells infected with virus, in both humans and mice. This activation required cognate interaction between the invariant TCR and MR1, which can present a bacteria-derived ligand. In humans, we observed considerably fewer MAIT cells in blood from patients with bacterial infections such as tuberculosis. In the mouse, MAIT cells protected against infection by Mycobacterium abscessus or Escherichia coli.