97; p <  001) than the controls (mean = 49 8 msec, SD = 4 06) In

97; p < .001) than the controls (mean = 49.8 msec, SD = 4.06). In addition, there was also a significant difference between Cyclopamine the Incongruence Cost measures where KP (102 msec) demonstrated a 27 msec increased latency compared to the control group (mean = 75 msec, SD = 8.08; t = 3.35; p < .001). KP's accuracy in responding (97%) was not significantly different to the control group (mean = 94.2%, SD = 5; t = .56). We also calculated KP's ICV (4.49), but this was again not significantly different to the controls (mean = 3.98, SD = .89; t = .539). It is possible that the large increase in incongruence costs demonstrated

by KP in session 2 could have been a product of generalised slowing, rather than a specific impairment when responding to incongruent stimuli. To investigate this possibility, the ratio between neutral reaction time and the three incongruence measures was examined. If KP were to demonstrate a significant deviation from the controls on these measures, this might be evidence that her incongruence Fulvestrant supplier costs were not just

a product of increased reaction times. The analysis demonstrated that the ratio of neutral reaction time to Incongruence Cost (KP = .21; Controls = .18, SE = .022), Pure Cost (KP = .14; Controls = .12, SE = .014) or Benefit (KP = .068; Controls = .059, SE = .015) there was no significant difference between KP and the control group. Therefore it is likely that KP’s Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 higher incongruence costs in the first session were simply

a consequence of a general increased latency in responding following her lesion. In the following session (S3) KP’s reaction times improved and there was now no significant difference between her reaction time to congruent (422 msec), incongruent (495 msec) or neutral stimuli (440 msec), compared to the control group. Nor were there any significant differences between any of the incongruence measures and the controls. In this session KP again demonstrated no significant differences in accuracy (94%) to the control group, and her consistency (ICV) in responding to neutral stimuli increased relative to the previous session (4.91), but was not significantly higher than in the control group (mean = 3.98, SD = .89; t = .99). In summary, in the first session using the flanker task (S2), KP was consistently slower in responding to all three types of stimuli. KP also demonstrated significantly larger incongruence costs, but this is likely a product of generalised slowing. In the second Flanker session (S3), KP demonstrated no significant impairment compared to controls. In this study we explored the behavioural consequences of a lesion of the caudal right pre-SMA on three standard measures of cognitive control. Our aim was to identify whether KP’s behaviour had changed as a result of the lesion and how this could be integrated into contemporary accounts of pre-SMA function.

Mitf-M is readily detectable in the nuclei of normal HeMa-LP cell

Mitf-M is readily detectable in the nuclei of normal HeMa-LP cells and A2058 metastatic

melanoma cells, but is decreased or lost from the nuclei of MelJuso, M14, G361 and Malme-3 M cells. These data suggest that Mitf-M is necessary for the regulation of genes required for the maintenance and differentiation of melanocytes, as absence of Mitf-M in the nucleus is seen only in melanoma lines. The Mitf gene is amplified in some melanomas, and it has been suggested that Mitf can function as a melanoma oncogene [43]. Mitf is down-regulated in B-raf transformed murine melanocytes and B-raf overexpressing human melanocytes, and exogenous reexpression of Mitf inhibited the proliferation of these cells [44]. These data suggest a tumor-suppressive or differentiation-promoting role for Mitf in melanocytes. This role is consistent with the function GDC-0068 of Mitf in regulating cell cycle arrest via activation of p21/WAF1 and p16Ink4a [45] and [46]. Since the melanoma line A2058 shows abundant expression of Mitf-M and other Mitf isoforms in the nucleus, this suggests that Mitf can support both oncogenic and tumor suppressor functions. Cumulatively, these find more data suggest that Rad6 may be a more reliable marker than Mitf for melanoma development.

Double labeling analysis of Rad6 and Melan-A, and Rad6 and β-catenin in normal adjacent and transformed areas of the same SSMM specimens shed further light on the significance of Rad6 as Acyl CoA dehydrogenase a potential

early marker for neoplastic conversion to melanoma. When melanocyte homeostasis is tightly regulated by keratinocytes, a process occurring in normal skin, Rad6 is undetectable. However, when homeostasis regulation is lost, as evidenced by increases in the number of Melan-A positive cells, Rad6 expression becomes noticeable. However, it is interesting to note that Rad6 expression is not initially localized in melanocytes, but rather expressed in the neighboring keratinocytes, prompting us to speculate that up-regulation of Rad6 in neighboring cells likely plays a role in the deregulation of melanocyte homeostasis and contributes to the risk of melanoma development. This supposition is supported not only by concurrent increases in the number of Melan-A positive cells, but also by increases in Melan-A/Rad6 double positive cells in tumor regions. Since the first detectable increase in Rad6 expression occurs in the neighboring keratinocytes that strongly express β-catenin prompts us to speculate that Rad6 gene expression may be induced by β-catenin, it’s transcriptional activator [25].

The study team would like to acknowledge the patients for their p

The study team would like to acknowledge the patients for their participation and commitment during the study. The authors would like to thank the investigators and contributors from each study site. The authors also thank Valerie AG-014699 nmr Schmitz, Kelli Rotondo, Myra Borsos, Janice Wiggan, Marc Bifano, Amber Griffies, Lori Goebel, Jie Yin, Fei Yu, Joseph Ueland, Dennis Hernandez, and all research staff for their contributions. “
“See Covering the Cover synopsis on page 917. See related article, Turner D et al, on page 1140 in CGH. Endoscopy is extremely valuable for evaluating the efficacy of new treatments for patients with ulcerative

colitis (UC).1 and 2 However, valid endoscopic scoring systems are needed to standardize end points and facilitate meaningful comparisons.3 Interobserver variation in endoscopic Vorinostat clinical trial assessment of disease severity may alter clinical trial outcomes and have a substantial effect on therapeutic or regulatory decisions.4 Several activity indices for UC incorporate endoscopic data, with the Mayo Clinic Index or the Ulcerative Colitis Disease Activity Index commonly used in trials conducted to seek

regulatory approval,1 but these instruments have not undergone appropriate validation or rigorous reliability assessment.1 and 5 To address the need for a highly dependable instrument for assessing the endoscopic severity of UC, we evaluated variations in the overall endoscopic assessment of disease severity, as well as intraindividual and interindividual variations of descriptive terms (“descriptors”),

to create the Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity (UCEIS).6 The UCEIS was developed in 2 phases: (1) the level of disagreement among investigators and 10 descriptors, each with 3 to 5 levels of severity, was determined and (2) interobserver and intraobserver variability for each descriptor was investigated. A model was then constructed that best represented overall endoscopic severity evaluated on a visual analogue scale (VAS), incorporating 3 descriptors, each with specific definitions: vascular pattern (3 levels), bleeding (4 levels), and erosions and ulcers (4 levels) (Table 1). The worst disease area was scored, Interleukin-2 receptor and the final score represented the sum of the components, with the UCEIS ranging from 3 (normal) to 11 (most severe). The first 2 phases showed very wide variation in endoscopic interpretation of UC disease severity between specialists but that 3 descriptors with 11 separate levels explained 90% of the variance between observers. After the first 2 phases it was concluded that the UCEIS accurately predicted overall assessment of endoscopic severity of UC, but that it should be assessed for reliability and validated before it could be used as an outcome measure in clinical trials or in routine clinical practice.

It suggests that at the largest spatial

scales, state-of-

It suggests that at the largest spatial

scales, state-of-the-art representations of physical www.selleckchem.com/screening/ion-channel-ligand-library.html processes and assimilation approaches embedded in the reanalysis methods, while quite different among the different reanalyses, produce consistent results. In essence, this means that important variables used for ocean carbon model forcing are similar on global scales, and that whatever important differences there are among the four reanalysis products, global ocean carbon mean fluxes and pCO2 are insensitive to them. This is less sweeping when one considers that only a portion of the vast reanalysis variables produced are important in ocean carbon modeling, the most important of which are surface temperature, wind speeds and stresses, and ice distributions, and when the sensitivities of ocean carbon models are determined by complex interactions in the model formulations. Although the global carbon flux and pCO2 distributions are similar among reanalyses, there are considerable differences on oceanographic basin scales. Air–sea carbon fluxes,

which, as small differences between large values of atmospheric and ocean pCO2, are especially sensitive to small variations in the representation of atmospheric forcing by reanalysis products. None of the reanalysis products are uniformly superior in all basins, nor are any uniformly inferior, as compared to in situ estimates. The differences among the reanalyses are largest in the high latitudes and the tropics, Selleck Nutlin3a which incidentally represent the basins of strongest sinks and strongest sources, respectively. Few of the

major departures observed in MERRA forcing, such as the South Atlantic and Pacific, North Astemizole Indian, North Central Pacific, and North Pacific, are rectified by the other reanalysis products (Fig. 5). ECMWF forcing, however, substantially ameliorates the departures observed in the MERRA and NCEP forcings in the North Indian and the Equatorial Pacific. Attribution of the differences of air–sea fluxes to specific variables in the reanalysis products is difficult because of the complexity of the ocean carbon cycle. Additionally, differences in annual mean fluxes shown here can be the result of seasonal differences in reanalysis products. A complete analysis of the effects of the reanalysis products and their influences on the representation of the global ocean carbon cycle is beyond the scope of this paper. However, it is worthwhile to attempt to relate differences in forcing with differences in fluxes, at least at coarse basin and annual scales, to assist in understanding how the reanalysis variables are affecting the observed changes in the representation of the global ocean carbon cycle. First, we note that there are really only 6 reanalysis variables affecting the air–sea fluxes in this biogeochemical model: ice concentrations, SST, surface pressure, wind speeds, and the x and y components of wind stress ( Fig. 1).

The primary mechanisms involved in this effect appear to include

The primary mechanisms involved in this effect appear to include a decrease in hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF-4α) expression, probably leading to a down regulation of PEPCK, one of the www.selleckchem.com/products/Cisplatin.html main rate-limiting enzymes of gluconeogenesis. These findings suggest an important role of Ang-(1-7) in hepatic glucose metabolism. This work was supported by a grant of CNPq (INCT-NanoBiofar), FAPEMIG, PRONEX (FAPEMIG/CNPq-Edital 17/2010) and CAPES. There are none competing of interests. “
“Acute appendicitis is one of the most common causes of acute abdominal pain requiring surgical intervention, with a lifetime risk of 8.6% for males and 6.7% for females.1 and 2 Historically, negative appendectomy rates of

more than 20% were considered the norm. However, this is no longer acceptable because even though complication rates in the setting of negative appendectomy are low, conditions such as incisional hernias, intestinal obstruction secondary to adhesions, and stump leakages can result in significant morbidity. Computed tomography (CT) scan has emerged as the dominant imaging

modality for evaluation of suspected appendicitis in adults.3 It has decreased negative appendectomy rates to less than 10%.4, 5 and 6 However, the radiation exposure with CT poses a concern, particularly in appendicitis, which occurs predominantly in young patients most susceptible to the adverse effects of radiation.7 and 8 Available literature has estimated that at least 25% of CT PDK4 scans are not clinically warranted I-BET-762 clinical trial and may pose more harm than benefit.9 Rules for clinical decisions guiding CT use are therefore essential to minimize unnecessary CT scans.9 We previously proposed a management algorithm for suspected appendicitis with the Alvarado score (AS) (Table 1) guiding CT use.10 This algorithm was, however, developed based on retrospective data with its antecedent limitations. This study aimed to compare the performance statistics of the AS with CT scan in the evaluation of suspected appendicitis. Thereafter, we attempt to use the AS to stratify patients with suspected

appendicitis into subgroups that might benefit from CT evaluation. An objective algorithm for the management of suspected appendicitis guided by the AS is then proposed. We performed an analysis of prospectively collected data from 450 consecutive patients with suspected appendicitis, admitted to the General Surgery Department at Singapore General Hospital. The study ran from August 2013 to March 2014, and only patients who underwent CT evaluation were included in the final analysis. Decision for CT evaluation was left to the discretion of the attending surgeon during the initial assessment. Patient demographics, presenting signs and symptoms, and relevant laboratory values were prospectively collected and recorded in a standardized data collection sheet.

Hence, as with radiosensitisation, this is less effective when

Hence, as with radiosensitisation, this is less effective when

cells are hypoxic. One class of platinum complexes which do not appear to rely on oxygen for activity are PtIV diazides. Dihydroxidodiam(m)ine platinum(IV) diazido complexes (e.g. 59 and 60, Figure 4f) are relatively inert in the dark and importantly are not readily reduced by the thiol tri-peptide glutathione, present in most cells at millimolar concentrations. These PtIV complexes possess intense ligan-(azide)-to-PtIV charge-transfer bands suitable for photoactivation. The excited states (which are populated in femto/pico-seconds) can have different geometries including lengthened and weakened Pt ligand bonds [57]. Interestingly, the trans diam(m)ine diazido complexes (60) appear to be more effective as photoactivatable anticancer agents than the cis isomers [ 58]. These complexes are also more effective than cisplatin Copanlisib research buy when used under conditions appropriate for clinical phototherapeutic drugs (short treatment times and short irradiation times). Introduction of pyridine ligands instead of ammonia leads to a marked increase in potency and activity at longer wavelengths (61). For example, the trans di-pyridine complex 62 is active

with UVA, blue and green light against a range of cancer cells at low micromolar doses [ 59•]. Longer wavelengths are of special interest because Thiazovivin they penetrate more deeply into tissue than short wavelengths. Activating platinum complexes which do not possess long wavelength absorption bands is possible using two photons of red light as fast laser pulses [ 60]. The activity of the complex trans,trans,trans-[Pt(N3)2(OH)2(NH3)(pyridine)] (62) towards oesophageal cancer is enhanced in vivo when irradiated with blue light [ 61•]. The mechanism of action appears distinct Tenofovir nmr from that of conventional platinum drugs such as cisplatin. One route of photodecomposition involves two one-electron transfers from the azido ligands generating N2 and PtII

( Figure 4h) which can then form DNA lesions. These lesions can be interstrand (e.g. trans bis-guanine) and different from those formed by cisplatin. Recent work suggests that there may be a role for the released azidyl radicals in the mechanism of action. Such radicals can be readily trapped and characterised by EPR and quenched by the amino acid tryptophan which can protect cancer cells in vitro [ 62•]. Furthermore, Pracharova et al. assessed the importance of DNA binding for the cytotoxicity induced by photoactivated 62. Major DNA adducts of photoactivated 62 are able to stall RNA polymerase II more efficiently than cisplatin, suggesting that transcription inhibition may contribute to the cytotoxicity of photoactivated PtIV complexes [ 63].

26 The effect of exercise or time-control (ie, no exercise) proto

26 The effect of exercise or time-control (ie, no exercise) protocols on vascular reactivity was analyzed by means of a repeated-measures ANOVA, followed by the Fisher post hoc test in case Idelalisib in vivo of significant F values. Vascular reactivity was compared between groups using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models, where all subjects’ characteristics were considered as covariates. At first, a model was used to compare the baseline vascular reactivity

between groups. Then, a different model was used to compare groups throughout time (ie, ANCOVA main factors: group [wild vs polymorphic] and time [baseline vs 10 minutes vs 60 minutes vs 120 minutes]). In the ANCOVA of the haplotypes, the haplotype containing only wild-type alleles (H1) was separately compared with each of the haplotypes containing polymorphic alleles (ie, H1 vs H2, H1 vs H3, H1 vs H4).26 Greenhouse–Geisser correction was used to correct P values from ANCOVA main effects due to deviation from the sphericity assumption. In case of significant F values, Cohen’s d effect size was calculated. Results are presented as mean ± standard error of the mean. Statistical significance was considered for P ≤ .05 based on 2-tailed comparisons. All analyses were performed using STATISTICA version 8.0 software

(StatSoft Inc, Tulsa, Okla). The characteristics of the entire sample were as follows: age 32 ± 1 years, BMI 25.0 ± 0.3 m/kg, total cholesterol 176 ± 3 mg/dL, HDL 55 ± 1 mg/dL, LDL 104 ± 2 mg/dL, triglycerides 89 ± 3 mg/dL, glycemia 85 ± 1 mg/dL, VO2peak 31.1 ± 0.7 mL/kg/min, HSP inhibitor SBP 114 ± 1 mm Hg, and DBP 73 ± 1 mm Hg. Vascular reactivity increased 10 minutes after exercise in the entire sample (main effect P < 0.01; baseline: 218 ± 11% vs 10 minutes: 284 ± 15%, P = 0.001), remained increased at 60 minutes (239 ± 12%, P = 0.02 vs baseline), and returned to baseline at 120 minutes (210

± 10%, P = 0.83 vs baseline). In the control protocol, there was no change in vascular reactivity (main Gefitinib effect P = 0.96; baseline = 227 ± 24%, 10 minutes = 228 ± 36%, 60 minutes = 237 ± 31%, 120 minutes = 237 ± 29%). The distribution of genotype frequencies for the polymorphisms studied showed no deviation from Hardy–Weinberg’s equilibrium (locus −786, P = 0.93; intron 4, P = 1.00; locus 894, P = 0.70). Two subjects had the 4b4c genotype, and 1 subject had the 4c4c genotype. Because of the low frequency of the c allele, subjects with the 4b4c genotype were grouped with those with the 4b4a genotype, whereas the subject with the 4c4c genotype was grouped with those with the 4a4a genotype. Table I shows partial correlations among eNOS gene polymorphisms and vascular reactivity according to dominant, recessive, and additive models.

Here we show the importance of these reefs and the main stressors

Here we show the importance of these reefs and the main stressors to which they are exposed. We explain the criteria to account this ecological corridor under the figure of a network of marine protected areas. To arrive at this proposal, we conducted a qualitative approach at different spatial scales. First, we considered the large region which includes the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). The GoM was divided according to their geological characteristics and the presence of reef systems. With this, we identified the factors that group these reef systems into two sets, according to the type of continental shelf, either carbonated or sedimentary. At a smaller

spatial scale for sedimentary platform reefs, we integrate information about the presence of scleractinian coral species, the main environmental APO866 characteristics, the relationship with human uses and the pressures Small Molecule Compound Library to which they are subjected. This information was obtained from published data for different reef systems and expert knowledge in each of

the areas. Evidence of connectivity between different reef systems was collected from the scientific literature, considering existing data on benthic organisms. We must emphasize that the main purpose of this paper is to set the conceptual basis to coordinate research efforts and management of this Reef Corridor, and the establishment of the first Mexican Marine Protected Area Network in the Gulf of Mexico. The Gulf

of Mexico is a Large Marine Ecosystem (Sherman, 1991) with a mixture of ecological characteristics of temperate and tropical environments. It is an inland sea whose basin of 1.5 × 106 km2 (Bryant et al., 1991) receives discharges from rivers that led to the formation of environmentally and biologically diverse coastal systems. Coral reefs require particular oceanographic and environmental conditions such as shallow, oligotrophic, and warm (>20° C) marine Pyruvate dehydrogenase waters, with an optimum between 26 and 28 °C, with salinities of 33–36 ups, minimal turbidity and sedimentation, well lit and with low wave energy (Hubbard, 1997; Carricart-Ganivet, 2004). However, in the Gulf of Mexico, some reefs developed despite the conditions of turbidity, sedimentation, temperature and organic inputs, produced by natural disturbances and human activities (Salas-Pérez and Granados-Barba, 2008, Salas-Pérez and Arenas, 2010, Pérez-España et al., 2012, Tunnell, 1992, Godínez-Ortega et al., 2009, Gutiérrez-Ruiz et al., 2011 and Ortiz-Lozano, 2012). In the Gulf of Mexico, reefs are distributed in two major groups linked to the environmental features of the continental shelf were they are located: the terrigenous platform present in West and North, and the Southeastern carbonate platform (Fig. 1).

, 1999 and Ruiz et al , 2001b) and a VTC

transmembrane co

, 1999 and Ruiz et al., 2001b) and a VTC

transmembrane complex (Fang et al., 2007 and Hothorn et al., 2009). It will be interesting to evaluate to which extent spherites physiology mirrors PolyP granules from other models. We express our gratitude to Roberto Docampo for providing recombinant exopolyphosphatase and to Eduardo Fox for proof reading. This work was supported by grants from the following Brazilian agencies: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) Brazil, Programa Jovens Pesquisadores CNPq/Brazil (to K.M.), Grupos Emergentes e Programa Pensa Rio da Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa Carlos Chagas Filho (FAPERJ), Programa de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (PADCT), and Programa de Núcleos de Excelência (PRONEX). “
“The heteroxenous flagellate Trypanosoma

cruzi (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) PI3K assay Selleck RAD001 is the causative agent of American Trypanosomiasis, a disease with a strong socioeconomic impact in Latin America ( Chagas, 1909, Dias, 2006 and Garcia et al., 2007). This tropical parasitic infection is highly abundant in South and Central America, where 5–10 million people are infected and approximately 25 million people are living in risk areas ( WHO, 2002, WHO, 2010 and Garcia et al., 2007). Chagas disease is usually transmitted by the feces of triatomines, which contains metacyclic T. cruzi form, but transplantation of organs, blood transfusion and oral infection are alternative transmission routes ( Beard et al., 2001, CDC, 2002, CDC, 2006, Dias, 2006 and Coura and Borges-Pereira, 2010). Though Triatoma infestans, formerly the major T. cruzi vector, has been eradicated from Brazil, in the northeastern semi-arid areas of the country Histone demethylase Triatoma brasiliensis has became one of the main Chagas disease vectors. This triatomine is regularly infected with T. cruzi and widely distributed, occurring in six Brazilian states ( Guarneri et al., 2000, Costa

et al., 2002, Costa et al., 2003 and Vitta et al., 2007). T. brasiliensis is a native species able to colonize different ecotopes such as households, sylvatic and peridomicilar environments and re-colonizes areas previously controlled by insecticides ( Costa et al., 2002 and Costa et al., 2003). The potential of these insects to be naturally infected by T. cruzi and its large distribution shows the importance for the transmission of the disease in some localities of Brazil. After infecting the vector, T. cruzi must interact with the hostile environment of the insects’ digestive tract, in which enzymes and digestion products are some of the factors that might modulate the parasite distribution and its development to infective metacyclic forms ( Garcia et al., 1995, Garcia et al., 2007, Garcia et al., 2011, Azambuja et al., 2005, Araújo et al., 2007 and Araújo et al., 2008). In order to understand the survival of T.

In our

study, a gene encoding ARF was up-regulated during

In our

study, a gene encoding ARF was up-regulated during kernel development, suggesting that it also plays a similar role in differentiation during maize embryogenesis. Moreover, many putative protein kinase genes were differentially expressed at various times, which were involved in signaling transduction pathway during maize ear development. For example, homeobox–leucine zipper family protein, a member of the LRR (leucine-rich repeat family protein) subfamily, might be required to increase cell size and the rate of embryonic development. A gene encoding a homeobox–leucine zipper family protein was up-regulated from 15 to 25 DAP, suggesting that this kinase might function in forming organs in the maize embryo. Therefore, we deduced that the accumulation of bZIP transcripts, MADS box-like proteins, and Forskolin putative laccase resulting GSK2118436 clinical trial from the down-regulation of miR528 might enhance auxin response and, in turn, seed germination in the final stage of seed development (after 22 DAP). However, further work is required to elucidate the functions of these protein kinases. By constructing a small RNA library and characterizing miRNA expression profiles in pooled maize ears at 10, 15, 20, 22, 25 and 30 DAP, at least 21 miRNAs were differentially

expressed. qRT-PCR verification for miR528a and miR167a/miR160b indicated that these miRNAs might be involved in ear development and germination. In addition, functional predictions of target genes indicated that most of

these differentially expressed miRNAs tended to have target genes that were involved in signal transduction and cell communication, particularly those involved in the auxin-signaling pathway. The results of gene expression analysis of candidate germination-associated miRNAs performed by microarray hybridization with a maize genome array demonstrated the differential expression of genes involved in plant hormone signaling pathways. This suggested that phytohormones might play a critical Thalidomide role in the maize ear developmental process. We showed that in combination with other miRNAs, miR528a regulates a putative laccase, a Ring-H2 zinc finger protein and a MADS box-like protein, whereas miR167a and miR160b regulate target genes including ARF (auxin response factor), a member of the B3 transcription factor family that is important for ear germination and physiology. Thus the small RNA transcriptomes and mRNA obtained in this study provide considerable insight into the expression and function of small RNAs in the development of viviparous kernels. This study was supported by grants from the Educational Commission of Sichuan Province (No. 2006J13-039), the Doctoral Program Foundation of Institutions of Higher Education of China (No. 20095103120002), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 30900901). “
“Rye (Secale cereale L.) is an important cereal crop worldwide.