Recent major breakthroughs in immunology, molecular biology, genomics, proteomics, biochemistry and computing sciences have driven vaccine technology forward, and will continue to do so. Many challenges remain, however, including persistent or latent infections, pathogens with complex life cycles, antigenic drift and shift in pathogens subject to selective pressures, challenging populations and emerging infections. To address these challenges researchers are exploring many avenues: novel adjuvants are being developed that enhance the immune response elicited by
a vaccine while maintaining high levels of tolerability; methods of protective antigen identification are iterated with every success; vaccine storage and transport systems are improving (including optimising the cold chain and developing temperature-stable vaccines); learn more and new and potentially more convenient methods of vaccine administration are being pursued. High priority targets include life-threatening diseases, such as malaria, tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as well as problematic infections caused by ubiquitous agents, such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV),
cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Staphylococcus aureus. Non-traditional vaccines are also likely to become available for the management of addiction, and the prevention, treatment ZD1839 chemical structure and cure of malignancies. This chapter is not meant as a compendium SPTLC1 of all new-generation vaccines, but rather as an outline of the modern principles that will likely facilitate the development of future vaccines. As shown in Figure 6.1, there are several key elements that are likely to be the foundation for the development of future vaccines. This chapter will illustrate these elements and provide examples that show promise. Since the first use of an adjuvant in a human vaccine over 80 years ago, adjuvant technology has improved significantly with respect to improving vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. Over 30 currently licensed vaccines have an adjuvant component in their formulation (see Chapter
4 – Vaccine adjuvants; Figure 4.1). The advances in adjuvant design have been driven by parallel advances in vaccine technology as many modern vaccines consist of highly purified antigens – with low non-specific reactogenicity which require combination with adjuvants to enhance the immune response. Future developments in adjuvant technology are expected to provide stronger immune priming, enhance immune responses in specific populations, and lead to antigen sparing. Adjuvants to date have demonstrated an ability to increase and broaden the immune response – examples include MF59™ or AS03 adjuvants used in various influenza vaccines, and aluminium or AS04 used in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines.