There were 1065 reported AEs (risk 7%, 95% CI 3.2% to 14.0%). The most frequent AEs were musculoskeletal AEs, abnormal liver function tests, nausea, changes in white blood cell counts and vomiting. There were six drug interactions (with aminophylline (4) and methotrexate (2)). The only drug related death occurred in a neonate who had an anaphylactic reaction. 258 musculoskeletal events occurred in 232 paediatric see more patients (risk 1.6%, 95% CI 0.9% to 2.6%). Arthralgia accounted for 50% of these. The age of occurrence of arthropathy ranged from 7 months to 17 years (median 10 years). All cases of arthropathy resolved or improved with management. One prospective controlled study estimated
the risk of arthropathy as 9.3 (OR 95% CI 1.2 to 195). Pooled safety data of controlled trials in this review estimated the risk of arthropathy as 1.57 (OR 95% CI 1.26 to 1.97).\n\nConclusion Musculoskeletal AEs occur due to
ciprofloxacin use. However, these musculoskeletal events are reversible with management. It is recommended that further prospective controlled studies should be carried out to evaluate the safety of ciprofloxacin, with particular focus on the risk of arthropathy.”
“The WHAM-F-TOX model uses chemical speciation to describe the bioavailability and toxicity of proton and metal mixtures (including Al) to aquatic organisms. Here, we apply the previously parameterised model to 45 UK and Norwegian upland surface waters recovering from acidification, to compare RepSox inhibitor its predictions of the maximum species richness of the macroinvertebrate Orders Ephemeroptera, Fosbretabulin concentration Plecoptera and Trichoptera (SR-EPT) with time-series observations. This work uses data from two national scale survey programmes, the Acid Waters Monitoring Network in
the UK and a lakes survey in Norway. We also investigate data from a long-studied catchment, Llyn Brianne in Wales. For the national surveys, model results relate well with actual trends, with Regional Kendall analysis indicating biological recovery rates for both actual and predicted species richness that are generally consistent (1.2-2.0 species per decade). However, actual recovery rates in AWMN lakes were less than in the rivers (0.6 vs. 2.0 species per decade), whilst predicted rates were similar (1.7 vs. 2.0). Several sites give a very good fit between model predictions and observations; at these sites chemistry is apparently the principal factor controlling limits of species richness. At other sites where there is poorer agreement between model predictions and observations, chemistry can still explain some of the reduction in species richness. However, for these sites, additional (un-modelled) factors further suppress species richness. The model gives a good indication of the extent of these un-modelled factors and the degree to which chemistry may suppress species richness at a given site. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.