In vitro, RA reduced 5-LOX expression in scleroderma fibroblasts

In vitro, RA reduced 5-LOX expression in scleroderma fibroblasts and downregulated TGF-beta 1 and CTGF expression, leading to the inhibition of type I and type III collagen synthesis. Our results indicate that the clinical effects of RA on

scleroderma are, at least in part, attributable to the reduction of 5-LOX expression and the subsequent suppression of TGF-beta 1 and CTGF expression that results in the blockade of collagenogenesis.”
“Cardiac involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome is common and represents the main cause of mortality. We report the case of a patient with Churg-Strauss vasculitis, mitral regurgitation with left ventricular dysfunction, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and refractory angina with non-significant coronary check details lesions. Cardiac denervation was proposed as an associated procedure to treat angina. The total removal of peri-adventitial and adventitial tissue around the superior vena cava, ascending aorta and main pulmonary trunk was performed. After 3 months of follow-up, the patient was angina-free and could resume his normal lifestyle.”
“William Richard Cowers (1845-1915) spent his career working at the National Hospital for the Relief and Cure for the Paralyzed and Epileptic at Queen Square, in London, United Kingdom, and at the nearby University College Hospital. His “”Manual of the Diseases of the Nervous System”" and many published lectures were based

almost entirely on his own clinical observations

meticulously recorded in shorthand. Batimastat manufacturer In this paper, we have focused on an analysis of his inpatient case records from 1878 to 1911 preserved in the archives at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square. We reviewed all 42 volumes and analyzed 2,478 patients. Between 1897 and 1909, a mean of 129.7 cases per year were admitted to the hospital under Cowers’ care. We grouped the diagnoses in 12 different categories. Epilepsy (16.5%), followed by spinal cord diseases (10.3%), cerebrovascular diseases (9.5%), and functional disorders (7.9%) were the most common diagnoses.”
“Osteosarcoma is a common primary malignant tumour of bones that produces an osteoid matrix. Parosteal osteosarcoma is an uncommon neoplasm and principally affects the long bones, especially in the distal femur, proximal tibia and proximal humerus. Rarely, the tumour may arise in a Ricolinostat in vivo flat bone, and rib involvement is very infrequent. An unusual case of primary parosteal osteosarcoma of the rib in an asymptomatic 28-year old female is presented here. A chest X-ray film suggested an intrapulmonary homogeneous mass, while a computed tomography scan revealed a broad-based calcified mass attached to the inner cortex of the right fourth anterior rib. The patient underwent a wide excision of the tumour together with adjacent intercostal muscles and chest wall reconstruction. Postoperative histopathological outcome was consistent with primary parosteal osteosarcoma.

Genomics and proteomics can complement each other in clinical app

Genomics and proteomics can complement each other in clinical applications by balancing the strengths and weaknesses of each individual technology. Several proteomics approaches have been exploited to shed more light on the molecular pathophysiology of several hereditary tubular disorders, such as Fanconi

and Gitelman syndromes, and have provided important insights into the defective molecular mechanisms underlying these tubulopathies. Here we summarize several of the most important discoveries arising from molecular genetic and proteomic studies on hereditary tubular dysfunctions and show how these results can complement each other to increase our comprehension of these disorders at the molecular level.”
“Opioids are widely used for their analgesic properties for the AZD9291 mw management of acute and chronic pain related to a variety of illnesses. Opioid usage is associated with adverse effects on respiration which are often attributed

to depression of the central nervous system. Recent data indicate that opioid use has increased over the last two decades. There is also increasing evidence that opioids have a variety of effects on the lungs besides suppression of respiration. Opioids can affect immune cells function, increase histamine release GNS-1480 causing bronchospasm, vaso-constriction and hypersensitivity reactions. Together, these actions have a variety of effects on lung function. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the effects of opioids on the lungs including the respiratory centre, immune function, airways and pulmonary vasculature.”
“The formation of various types of kidney stones is strongly influenced by urinary pH. An alkaline pH favors the crystallization of calcium- and phosphate-containing stones, whereas and acidic urine pH promotes uric acid or cystine stones. The activity of many transport processes involved in calcium, citrate and phosphate

handling are sensitive to changes in systemic or local pH as shown for several phosphate transporters, the citrate transporter NaDC1 and the TRPV5 calcium channel. Defects in urinary acidification NVP-BSK805 (excretion of inappropriately alkaline or acidic urines, respectively) contribute to kidney stone disease. The low excretion of ammonium in patients with metabolic syndrome has been linked to more acidic urine and a higher incidence of uric acid stones. In this state, insulin resistance may reduce ammonium excretion by the proximal tubule. On the other hand, defensive mechanisms may protect from kidney stone formation in conditions such as hypercalciuria where high luminal calcium concentrations stimulate urinary acidification and reduce urinary concentration via a calcium-sensing receptor, resulting in the excretion of acidic and diluted urine.

Minor side effects were flushing (two patients) and headache (one

Minor side effects were flushing (two patients) and headache (one patient). NAC infusion was generally well tolerated, and nobody had to discontinue the treatment. In conclusion, long-term therapy C59 Wnt in vitro with NAC, in patients with SSc, has a

durable effectiveness on ischemic ulcers and Raynaud’s phenomenon.”
“Accumulation of thermal energies by highly repeated irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses inside a glass induces the heat-modification whose volume is much larger than that of the photoexcited region. It has been proposed that the heat-modification occurs in the region in which the temperature had overcome a threshold temperature during exposure of laser pulses. In order to understand the mechanism of the heat-modification, we investigated

the temperature distribution during laser exposure and the threshold temperature by analyzing the volume of the modification based on a thermal diffusion model. We found that the threshold temperature becomes lower with increasing laser exposure time. The dependence of the threshold temperature on the laser exposure time was explained by the deformation mechanism based on the temperature-dependent viscosity and viscoelastic behavior of a glass under a stress loading by thermal expansion. The deformation mechanism also could simulate a tear-drop shape of a heat-modification by simultaneous double-beams’ irradiation and the distribution of birefringence in a heat-modification. The mechanism proposed in this study means that the temperature-dependence of the viscosity of a glass should be essential for predicting and controlling the heat-modification. (c) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3483238]“
“Beh double dagger et’s disease (BD) is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology, and infections with different microorganisms including streptococci have been claimed as triggers of inflammatory attacks in BD pathogenesis. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) has been

known to recognize several microbial antigens including that of streptococci, and TLR2 gene Arg753Gln polymorphism has been reported to be strongly associated with acute rheumatic fever with an odds ratio of 100. This study aimed to investigate the TLR2 gene Arg753Gln polymorphism in a group of patients with BD and rheumatic Stem Cell Compound Library heart disease (RHD) and to analyze the role of genotyping errors resulting from duplicated gene segments. The study group consisted of 211 patients with BD, 95 patients with RHD, and 94 matched Turkish healthy controls. Because of the duplicated exon 3 in 23-kb upstream of the TLR2 gene, genotyping for the Arg753Gln polymorphism with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was carried out using a new set of primers and PstI restriction enzyme. TLR2 gene Gln753 allele was observed in two of 211 (1.0%) patients with BD, five of 95 (5.3%) patients with RHD, and two of 94 (2.1%) healthy controls.

In addition, we found that CYP99A3 also oxidized syn-stemod-13(17

In addition, we found that CYP99A3 also oxidized syn-stemod-13(17)-ene at C19 to produce, sequentially, syn-stemoden-19-ol, syn-stemoden-19-al, and syn-stemoden-19-oic acid, albeit with lower catalytic efficiency than with syn-pimaradiene. Although the CYP99A3 syn-stemodene-derived products were not detected in planta, these results nevertheless provide a hint at the currently unknown metabolic fate of this diterpene in rice. Regardless of any wider role, our results strongly indicate that CYP99A3 acts as a multifunctional diterpene

oxidase in momilactone biosynthesis.”
“The effect of poly(D,L-lactide-co-para-dioxanone) (PLADO) as the compatibilizer on the properties of the blend of poly(para-dioxanone) (PPDO) and poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) has been investigated. Nutlin-3 molecular weight The 80/20 PPDO/PDLLA blends containing from 1% to 10% of random copolymer PLADO were prepared by solution coprecipitation. The PLADO component played a very important role in determining morphology, thermal, mechanical, and hydrophilic see more properties of the blends. Addition of PLADO into the blends could enhance the compatibility between dispersed PDLLA phase and PPDO matrix; the boundary between the two phases became unclear and even the smallest holes were not detected. On the other hand, the position of the T(g) was composition dependent; when 5% PLADO was added into blend, the Tg distance between PPDO

and PDLLA was shortened. The blends with various contents of compatibilizer had better mechanical properties compared with simple PPDO/PDLLA binary polymer blend, and such characteristics further improved

as adding 5% random copolymers. The maximum observed tensile strength was 29.05 MPa for the compatibilized PPDO/PDLLA blend with 5% PLADO, whereas tensile strength of the uncompatibilized PPDO/PDLLA blend was 14.03 MPa, which was the lowest tensile strength. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 120: 544-551, 2011″
“P>Sulfur is an essential nutrient for all organisms. Plants take up most sulfur as inorganic sulfate, reduce it and incorporate it into cysteine during primary sulfate assimilation. However, some of the sulfate is partitioned into the secondary metabolism to synthesize a variety of sulfated compounds. The two pathways of sulfate utilization branch after activation of sulfate to adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate SN-38 order (APS). Recently we showed that the enzyme APS kinase limits the availability of activated sulfate for the synthesis of sulfated secondary compounds in Arabidopsis. To further dissect the control of sulfur partitioning between the primary and secondary metabolism, we analysed plants in which activities of enzymes that use APS as a substrate were increased or reduced. Reduction in APS kinase activity led to reduced levels of glucosinolates as a major class of sulfated secondary metabolites and an increased concentration of thiols, products of primary reduction.

At T1, we found a significant Delta IL10 (reduction) and Delta TN

At T1, we found a significant Delta IL10 (reduction) and Delta TNF alpha (reduction) between XE and SEV (p < 0.05) and XE and TIVA (p < 0.05) groups. At T2, Delta IL10 was still significant. Furthermore, we found a reduced AUC value for TNF alpha in the XE group.

Xenon anesthesia seems able to inhibit postoperative proinflammatory cytokine imbalance in morbidly obese patients undergoing Roux-en-Y laparoscopic gastric bypass; the reduced Delta TNF alpha at T1 and the reduced global exposition to TNF alpha in the XE group may explain the reduced Delta IL10

at T1 and T2.”
“Objective: To assess and to evaluate possible effects arising from Web-based data collection on the results of a study.

Study Design and Setting: We analyzed participants of AG-881 the German Weight Control Registry (GWCR) of whom 328 chose to use Web-based questionnaires and 139 preferred to participate via a traditional postal survey. Furthermore, we included data of 212 individuals sampled independently from the general population who fulfilled the study’s inclusion criteria-giving us the chance to differentiate between response bias (concerning Web-based data collection) and general selection bias (concerning

participation in the GWCR).

Results: In addition to selection bias (GWCR participants are overall better educated, more likely to live in a partnership, more often female, and older than the general population), we also found a substantial response bias: Participants using the Internet were younger, better educated, and more often male compared this website with participants preferring the paper-and-pencil PI3K inhibitor version. However, after adjusting for these differences, we found no additional direct effect of Web-based data collection on any of the outcome variables.

Conclusion: Web-based epidemiologic studies still do not attract the same participants as postal surveys, even in highly industrialized countries. However, after adjusting for this bias, the same results can be expected.

(C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“We describe the surgical management of an uncommon case of ossifying fibroma affecting the mandibular condyle. A condylectomy was performed with an immediate temporomandibular joint reconstruction by a total temporomandibular joint prosthesis.”
“Bariatric surgery has a lot of problems in anesthesia. We retrospectively compared anesthesia for bariatric surgery in yellow race with that in normal weight patients.

Twenty patients who received bariatric surgery and 20 normal body weight patients who received abdominal surgery in Japan were enrolled. Induction condition, depth of epidural space, dose of anesthetics, duration of the effects of muscle relaxants, ventilation, and fluid management in bariatric surgery were analyzed and compared with those in normal body weight patients.

An epidural catheterization was successful under ultrasound guide in the bariatric group. The depth epidural space was significantly larger in the bariatric group.

After floral dip transformation, transient T-DNA expression witho

After floral dip transformation, transient T-DNA expression without integration could not be detected, while stable T-DNA transformation occurred in 0.5-1.3 % of the T1 seedlings. Upon

selection for floral dip transformants with a first T-DNA, 8-34 % of the transformants showed cotransfer of the other non-selected T-DNA and in 93-100 % of them, the T-DNA was also integrated. Therefore, a productive interaction between the agrobacteria and the female gametophyte, rather than the T-DNA integration process, restricts the floral dip transformation frequencies.”
“Introduction BRAF mutations and RET or NTRK1 rearrangements were identified as causing events that drive the malignant transformation of the thyroid follicular cell. The impact of these alterations on the course of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is still unsettled.

Patients and methods Tumor tissues of 290 (98 male, 192 female) patients were intra-operatively snap frozen Fer-1 or harvested from

archival paraffin-embedded blocks and used for extraction of DNA and RNA. Comprehensive analysis of RET/PTC and NTRK1 rearrangements was carried out by multiplex screening RT-PCR, hybrid-specific RT-PCR and sequencing of detected hybrids. A mutation-specific PCR was used for BRAF analysis.

Results The BRAF V600E mutation was detected in 122/290 (42%), RET rearrangements in 20/137 (14.6%), and NTRK1 rearrangements in 15/93 (16.1%) PTCs. One this website hundred forty one out of 290 (48.6%) PTCs demonstrated none of the genetic alterations studied. Eight PTCs expressed two different mutations (1 RET/PTC+BRAF, 6 NTRK1+BRAF, 1 RET/PTC +

NTRK1). Tumor-specific survival analysis (mean follow-up, 5.5 years) demonstrated no significant difference, but a tendency toward worse prognosis of BRAF-positive patients compared to BRAF-negative patients or rearrangement-positive patients, respectively.

Conclusion Long-term follow-up data on large tumor panels are needed to disclose significant survival differences of prognostic predictors on PTC. This study provides further evidence that patients harboring BRAF-V600E-positive PTCs may experience an unfavorable course of the disease compared to patients with tumors carrying other genetic alterations.”
“Early gastric cancer located from the pyloric ring to inside the duodenal bulb (DB) is not easily treated by endoscopic Fludarabine JAK/STAT inhibitor submucosal dissection (ESD). The endoscope needs to be reversed inside the DB to set the resection line at a safe distance from the anal side. Because of the space limitations and limited flexibility of conventional endoscopy (CE), there have been increasing possibilities of complications. Here we report a new ESD technique using a transnasal endoscope (TN-E) that is reversed inside the DB.

The subjects were 5 patients with early gastric cancer or adenoma, at locations ranging from the pyloric ring to inside the DB, who were all treated by ESD.

4 years (26-81)

The mean BMI was 27 3 +/- 5 1 (19-37) T

4 years (26-81).

The mean BMI was 27.3 +/- 5.1 (19-37). The mean pre-operative closure pressure was 19.1 PF-03084014 mw +/- 9.4 cmH(2)O (3-46). The mean hospital stay was 14.1 +/- 5 days (5-28). The mean follow-up was 8 +/- 5.6 years. Incontinence was completely resolved in 34 women (68%). The protective factors to avoid explantation were a number of gestations less than two (p = 0.04), a closure pressure higher than 19 cmH(2)O (p = 0.04) and a cuff size equivalent to 8 cm (p = 0.005).

Specific anatomical conditions can sometimes lead to AUS implantation with a large cuff with encouraging outcomes. Thus, surgeons should not be reluctant to place a large cuff when the situation requires it.”
“Two series of samples with nominal composition Sr(1-x)La(x)Ru(1-x)CrxO(3) (SLRC) and Sr(1-x)Ca(x)Ru(1-x)CrxO(3) (SCRC) (x = 0.04, 0.08, and 0.12) have been prepared and investigated in order to explore the mechanism of the Curie temperature increase in Cr-doped SrRuO3. The magnetic experiment results demonstrate that the Curie temperature (T-C) of SLRC decreases with an increase in x, whereas in SCRC, T-C slightly increases with Cr doping. This indicates that the enhancement of the ferromagnetism by Cr doping is more significant in the system containing Ru5+. We suggest that the exchange interaction between Ru5+ and Cr3+ plays an important role in enhancing the ferromagnetism

in the system. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3567051]“
“The epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections is poorly understood, selleckchem particularly in regions where tuberculosis (TB) is endemic. In 5 years, 75 children had nontuberculous Selleckchem ATM/ATR inhibitor mycobacterial disease

(30 lymphadenopathy, 17 pulmonary, 17 soft tissue, and 11 bacteremia) and 30 had TB. Divergent antibiotic susceptibility profiles and the persistence of disease caused by TB emphasize the importance of microbiologic diagnosis for suspected mycobacterial disease.”
“Although endometriosis is not infrequent, the occurrence of perineal endometriomata is relatively rare and is generally attributed to seeding of endometrial cells to the perineal body during obstetrical trauma. A 45-year-old female with a history of a colpoperineorrhaphy during menses and a remote history of obstetric perineal trauma presented with an enlarging perineal mass. Excision of the mass led to a clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of perineal endometriosis. Elective surgery disrupting the vaginoperineal epithelium performed during menses may facilitate the seeding of endometrial cells to the perineal body and formation of perineal endometriomata.”
“Two coexisting spin torque oscillation (STO) modes in dual magnetic tunnel junctions with MgO barriers are observed by measuring the field-dependent power spectra.

Pentazocine, a kappa receptor agonist exerted a significant analg

Pentazocine, a kappa receptor agonist exerted a significant analgesic effect (p<0.001). In comparison to control, angiotensin antagonists Losartan, Irbesartan and Valsartan PD98059 mw show significant reduction in time for onset of writhing and also number of writhing. The % inhibitions of writhing for Losartan, Irbesartan and Valsartan at a dose of 20 mg/kg were 74, 68 and 73% respectively, whereas Aspirin (100 mg/kg) has 83% inhibition. All the three drugs have shown significant p value (p<0.001) which is comparable to standard control”

performance of a direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) based on a polyacrylamide (PAAm) gel polymer electrolyte system is investigated at different electrolyte concentrations. The DBFC, constructed using 2M sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as the fuel and potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution gelled with PAAm as the electrolytes yield the highest electrical conductivity of 2.73 x 10-1 S cm-1 at 6M KOH. The optimized composition,

PAAm + 2M NaBH4 + 6M KOH, and the selected composition, PAAm + 2M NaBH4 + 3M KOH are then used in preparing the cells. Open-circuit voltages for fuel cells is about 0.85-0.92 V, and the discharge characteristic produce discharge capacities of about 257.12-273.12 mAh cm-2 for cells with PAAm-6M KOH. Current-voltage and current density-power density plots and internal resistance for both cells are almost the same. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“Background: Several recent climate change reviews have stressed Dinaciclib concentration the possibility of Anlotinib some malaria vectors occupying regions of higher altitudes than previously recorded. Indeed, highland malaria has been observed in several African nations, possibly attributable to changes in land use, vector control and local climate. This study

attempts to expand the current knowledge of the distribution of common Anopheles species in Ecuador, with particular attention to highland regions (> 500 m) of the Andes.

Methods: Extensive field collections of larvae were undertaken in 2008, 2009 and 2010 throughout all regions of Ecuador (except the lower-altitude Amazonian plain) and compared to historical distribution maps reproduced from the 1940s. Larvae were identified using both a morphological key and sequencing of the 800 bp region of the CO1 mitochondrial gene. In addition, spatial statistics (Getis-Ord Hotspot Analysis: Gi*) were used to determine high and low-density clusters of each species in Ecuador.

Results: Distributions have been updated for five species of Anopheles in Ecuador: Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Anopheles punctimacula, Anopheles eiseni and Anopheles oswaldoi s.l.. Historical maps indicate that An.

In the present study, the ethyl acetate extract exhibited the hig

In the present study, the ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (40.12 mg of GAEs/g of extract) and showed the strongest antioxidant activity Selleckchem AZD1208 in the beta-carotene bleaching assay significantly. Whilst,

the hexane extract showed significantly the highest antioxidant activity when determined by scavenging effect on DPPH radicals (EC(50) 210 mu g/ml) and the reducing power assay.”
“An immunoassay system was established for the estimation of the quantity of an antitumor cyclic hexapeptide RA-VII (1) from Rubia cordifolia L. and R. akane Nakai (Rubiaceae). First, 1 was converted into its hapten, which was then conjugated with a carrier protein to be used as an effective antigen to obtain its monoclonal antibody (MAb). In the resulting conjugate, the molecular ratio between 1 and the carrier

protein as assayed by matrix-assisted PF-02341066 price laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was about 5:1. Then, the splenocytes from the mouse immunized with the conjugate were fused with mouse myeloma cells to produce hybridoma, secreting MAb against 1. Two clones were isolated, one producing MAb IgG(1) and the other IgM, both having a kappa light chain. The sensitivity and cross-reactivity of the thus obtained MAb were also assayed.”
“Background: Metabolic syndrome is listed as a risk for atherosclerosis. However, changes in that risk during childhood and adolescence have not been well-documented. It is also unclear whether individuals with abdominal obesity, but with as yet undiagnosed metabolic syndrome, have cardiovascular risks.

Methods and results: Ninety-two patients were studied at the Hamamatsu University School of Medicine Department of Pediatrics. Physical measurements including abdominal circumference (AC), body mass index (BMI), body fat (BF), intima media thickness (IMT), arterial elasticity: beta GW786034 clinical trial index (Beta), carotid artery compliance (CAC), and Young’s

elastic modulus (YEM) using ultrasonography were taken. A positive correlation between systolic blood pressure, AC, BMI, and BF was observed (AC, r = 0.717, p < 0.001; BMI, r = 0.672, p < 0.001; BF, r = 0.518, p < 0.001). IMT showed a weak positive correlation with AC, BMI and BF (AC, r = 0.211, p = 0.044; BMI, r = 0.233, p = 0.025; BF, r = 0.232, p = 0.026). The relationship between AC, BMI, BF and arterial elasticity, especially in AC, positively correlated with beta index and YEM but negatively correlated with CAC.

Conclusion: We suggest that AC is the most sensitive marker in the detection of arterial elasticity, even in school age children. Earlier pre-diagnostic intervention, especially in the prevention of abdominal obesity, may reduce the incidence of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents.

The immunological status of the brain and the presence of the blo

The immunological status of the brain and the presence of the blood-brain barrier raise the possibility of local immunosuppression. This article provides an overview of the strategies recently developed to protect intracerebral neural transplants with special focus

on local immunosuppression.”
“Background: There is a paucity of lung specific biomarkers to diagnose exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to track their progression. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a pulmonary collectin regulating the innate immunity of the lung and its serum expression is perturbed in COPD. However, it is not known whether serum levels change during exacerbations. We sought VX-770 to determine whether serum SP-D levels are raised in COPD exacerbations.

Objectives: check details To determine whether or not patients with exacerbations have elevated serum SP-D levels

compared with asymptomatic controls, stable disease.

Study design: case control study.

Methods: We measured serum SP-D levels from patients with stable COPD (n = 14), patients experiencing acute exacerbations (n = 13) and in control subjects (n = 54) using a specific immunoassay and compared the levels using analysis of variance.

Results: Serum SP-D levels were significantly increased in patients who experienced an acute exacerbation (227 +/- 120 ng/mL) compared to patients with stable disease buy AZD7762 (151 +/- 83 ng/mL) or control subjects (128 +/- 65 ng/mL; p = 0.003). Serum SP-D levels were also found to be inversely related to various lung function parameters including FEV(1)/FVC% predicted.

Conclusions: Our study suggests that serum SP-D levels are increased in patients during exacerbations and may be a potential

diagnostic biomarker for COPD exacerbations.”
“Xanthogranuloma (XG) is a benign cutaneous histiocytic tumor occurring mainly in young children. Onset in adulthood is rarely observed. We encountered an unusual case of an XG-like cutaneous tumor on the scalp of a 50-year-old man. The tumor recurred with multiple satellite nodules soon after surgical excision. This unusual clinical behavior has not previously been described for XG and caused a diagnostic challenge; it was unclear whether the tumor was an atypical XG or a malignant dermal tumor mimicking an XG. Our analyses favored an XG-like dermal histiocytic tumor. A longer follow-up and reports of similar cases will reveal its true nature.”
“Purpose of review

Porcine islet xenotransplantation into humans faces two major hurdles – safety issues related to xenosis and xenorejection of the transplants. The former has been overcome mainly by selection of a suitable disease-free source herd.

Recent findings

Four strategies have been employed to date to overcome the rejection, all of which have shown some efficacy in animal models.