(C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Non-coding RNAs regulate dosage compensation in mammals by controlling transcriptional silencing of one of the two X chromosomes in females. The two major transcripts involved in this process are Xist and its antisense counterpart Tsix. Expression of Xist and Tsix from the X inactivation Sapanisertib center is mutually exclusive. Xist expression triggers chromosome wide silencing of the X chromosome from which it is transcribed. Tsix is a repressor of Xist and is specifically
expressed from the other X chromosome, maintaining its activity.
Here, we review non-coding RNAs that have been implicated in X chromosome inactivation. Focusing on the best studied transcripts Xist and Tsix we portray a current perspective on chromosome wide gene regulation by non-coding RNAs.”
“Having based on x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we point out structural phase separation
in polycrystalline Zn1-xMnxO ceramics prepared by solid-state reaction. The samples are single phase in the wurtzite structure as x<0.04. A Mn-concentration increase with x MK-2206 >= 0.04 results in the formation of a secondary phase of tetragonal ZnMn2O4 spinel. The feature of x-ray absorption spectra for the Mn K edge reveals an existence of Mn2+ and Mn3+ ions in Zn1-xMnxO, which are responsible for room-temperature paramagnetism. Particularly, when Mn content is increased, there is a chemical shift of the absorption edge toward higher energies, indicating an increase in concentration of Mn3+ ions. Fourier
analyses for the spectra of extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) shows up the substitution of Mn for Zn sites in the ZnO host lattice. The parameters related to the local structure have been determined and discussed in detail. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3639303]“
“In mammals, imprinted genes are clustered and at least one gene in each imprinted cluster is a long i.e., macro non-coding (nc) RNA. Most genes in a cluster show concordant DMXAA mw parental-specific expression but the ncRNA is the odd one out, and is expressed from the opposite parental chromosome. While reciprocal expression between imprinted macro non-coding RNAs and flanking mRNA genes is indicative of a functional role, only two of three tested macro ncRNAs have been shown to induce imprinted gene expression. The two known functional imprinted macro non-coding RNAs are both RNAPII transcripts with unusual transcriptional properties that may be functionally relevant and their analysis may shed light on the function of non-coding RNAs that have been shown to comprise the majority of the mammalian transcriptome.”
“Purpose: Xerostomia is a common, disturbing side-effect among patients treated with radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether histamine could prevent salivary gland dysfunction and histological alterations exerted by ionising radiation.