In this study, unlike other approaches, the major breakthrough is

In this study, unlike other approaches, the major breakthrough is that we can achieve accurate localization of sensor nodes solely using omnidirectional antenna even if only one reference node exists. Besides, we can be benefit from the advantages of using omnidirectional antennas, e.g., low-cost (simplicity) and easy deployment (efficiency).In this work, a robust correlation is incorporated in analyzing the relative positions between two sensor nodes using the received signal strength indication (RSSI) pattern. A cooperative localization scheme is also developed to improve the accuracy of the estimation as multiple reference nodes are available. The performance of the proposed framework has been evaluated by computer simulations and real world experiments under various experimental conditions.

The rest of this paper is organized as follows: Section 2 describes the definition of localization problems in WSNs, including network configuration, a pair of customized antenna modules, an azimuth dependent radio power model, and RSSI patterns. Section 3 presents the modified robust correlation to provide a better metric for matching RSSI patterns. Section 4 provides the collaborative localization scheme for precise localization. Experimental results yielded by computer simulation and field test are reported in Section 5. Finally, the discussion and conclusion are given in the last section.2.?Problem Formulation2.1.

Network ConfigurationSuppose a WSN is composed of sensor nodes and reference nodes that are deployed in a given sensing field.

The objective of this study is to provide accurate location information of Cilengitide the sensor nodes in WSNs. The coordinates of the reference nodes are assumed known a priori. The location of the sensor node is estimated based on the measurements of nearby reference nodes. In this study, we focus on WSNs formed by a number of reference nodes that GSK-3 can estimate the locations of a given set of sensor nodes. Thus, we represent the network by the Euclidean graph G = (V, E), as depicted in Figure 1, with the following properties: V is a set of nodes in the network, and V = S, R; S is a set of sensor nodes equipped with RSSI sensors, and S = s1, s2, ��, snum_S; R is a set of reference nodes equipped with servomotor-controlled external antennas, and R = r1, r2, ��, rnum_R.

num_S is the number of sensor nodes; and num_R is the number of reference nodes. Sensor nodes S of the network do not know their location information. Physical positions of R are obtained by manual placement or external means. These nodes are the basis of the localization system. E. It is sustainable if the distance between ri and sj is lesser than the communication range of ri.

Arp2 3 complex Actin polymers also require cor tactin, which sta

Arp2 3 complex. Actin polymers also require cor tactin, which stabilizes nucleation sites for actin branch ing and elongation. Crip1 facilitates actin filament bundling and stabilizes actin interaction with a actinin too. Linkage of actin polymers to adherens junctions, mainly composed of the transmem brane proteins cadherins, is insured through binding to a catenin and b catenin. Based on the gene expression data generated, we have tried to synthesize the effects of DEHP on actin organi sation and cell adhesion specifically. A 5 and 24 hrs exposure to DEHP over expressed Coronin 1C, resulting in F actin disassembly. Disorga nization was amplified by under expression of Enah involved in actin nucleation and polymerization, and expression of Cttnbp2 that counteracts cortactin which is known to stabilize the actin network.

On the other hand, the binding of actin filaments to cadherins through catenin links appears to be reinforced owing to under expression of Ctnnbip1 and over expression of Crip1, which intensifies fixation to actinin. Globally, the effects of DEHP on actin cytoske leton disturb actin polymerization while intensifying binding on actinin and catenins. Posnack AV-951 et al. explored DEHP effects on rats cardiomyocytes in a range of concentrations two and three orders of magnitude higher than here. They found an over expression of actinin, a catenin and N cadherin in a concentration dependent manner. Cell cell and cell matrix adhesion Cell cell adhesion and cell matrix adhesion were also affected by DEHP treatment.

The decrease in the P Cadherin mRNA level after 24 hrs of exposure indicates that DEHP weakened cell cell contact, after a transient increase at 5 hrs of exposure for all doses tested. Weakening of cell matrix adhesion may result from a decrease in the Hyaluronan synthase 2 mRNA level and in Thrombospondin, an adhesive protein that interacts with fibronectin, laminin, integrins and collagen. Loss of cell adhesion may also be explained by over expression of Coro1C because this gene negatively regulates cell matrix adhesion through focal adhesion kinase mediated signalling. Also, under expression of Enah, which is known to be involved in the control of cellular adhesion by the recruitment of proteins containing SH3 domain, contributes to the loss of cell cell adhesion.

In addition, DEHP may lessen extracellular matrix adhesion by reducing the expression level of a number of transmembrane proteins involved in cell matrix con nections, Fibronectin leucine rich 2 and Leucine rich repeat 8A, Nidogen 2, which connects laminin 1 to the matrix, and Thy 1, which mediates fibroblastic adhesion and is Thbs1 expression dependent. On the other hand, DEHP effects rein force the extra cellular matrix through an over expres sion of col1A1 increasing collagen. This effect may be seen as a compensatory reaction to the weakening of cell to matrix link proteins by DEHP. Sobarzo et al. demonstrated an up regulation of N cadherin and a catenin in rat t

e pression of aPKC leads to the phosphorylation of HIV 1 Gag at S

e pression of aPKC leads to the phosphorylation of HIV 1 Gag at Ser487 in cells, and that this phosphorylation is dependent of the kinase activity of aPKC. To further investigate whether the phosphorylation of HIV 1 Gag at Ser487 is mediated by endogenous aPKC activity, we employed a myristoylated PKC�� pseudosub strate peptide as an aPKC inhibitor. This PKC�� pseu dosubstrate peptide mimics the substrate binding site in PKC�� and PKC��, and suppresses the activity of endogenous PKC�� and PKC��. HIV 1 Gag Pol e pression plasmids were transfected into 293T cells with or without aPKC inhibitor treatment. Immunoblot analysis revealed that the aPKC inhibitor suppressed Gag phosphorylation at Ser487. Subsequent titration analysis demonstrated a dose dependent inhibitory effect of the PKC�� pseudosubstrate peptide by showing an 74.

9% and 70. 4% decrease in Gag phosphorylation at 2 uM and 5 uM doses, respectively. Note that at these Brefeldin_A concentrations the aPKC inhibitor did not affect the e pression levels of endogenous aPKC as well as a house keeping protein Vinculin. Fur thermore, cell viability was not prominently affected by aPKC inhibitor when cells were assessed by trypan blue e clusion. Conventional PKC, Akt, CDK and PI3 kinases have been reported previously to affect HIV 1 replication through their phosphory lation of HIV 1 or of host proteins. We thus also investigated using specific inhibitors whether these kinases could mediate the phosphorylation of HIV 1 Gag at Ser487. Our results show that neither PKC nor PKCB specific pseudosubstrates affect Gag phospho rylation at Ser487.

Similarly, neither Akt inhibitor, the CDK inhibitor roscovitine nor the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin blocked Gag phosphorylation at Ser487. Taken together, these observations indicate that aPKC specifically phosphorylates HIV 1 Gag at Ser487 both in vitro and in vivo. The phosphorylation of Gag Ser487 facilitates the interaction between Gag and Vpr HIV 1 Gag p6 contains a late domain consisting of three protein binding motifs, PTAP, LYP nL and C terminal Vpr. Ser487 is located in the Ali binding motif and is also adjacent to the Vpr binding motif spanning amino acids 488 492. To obtain structural based information on Gag phospho rylation on Ser487 and how it affects the interaction of Gag with Ali or Vpr, we conducted computer assisted molecular modeling of the Gag p6 domain coupled with peptides derived from either Ali or Vpr.

The models con structed in this study included unphosphorylated and phosphorylated Gag p6, and its Ser Ala substituted mutant on Ser487. Mo lecular modeling calculations with thermodynamically op timized three dimensional structures showed less than 1 of positional shifts of C atoms of Gag p6 by phosphory lation, suggesting no obvious difference in the basic struc ture of Gag p6 irrespective of the phosphorylation status. Furthermore, binding interface between Gag p6 and Ali was not affected by the phosphorylation or Ser Ala substitution of Gag Ser487. On th

In the following we show that in cases where the SBP measurements

In the following we show that in cases where the SBP measurements by the two techniques deviate, it is possible t
The excellent insulating and arc extinguishing properties of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas greatly improve the dielectric strength when used as an insulating medium. SF6 has been widely utilized in gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) [1�C4]. The reliability of GIS equipment is very high, however, its inevitable intrinsic defects continue to cause varying degrees of partial discharge (PD). Active gas produced by discharge accelerates insulation aging and corrosion of metal surfaces and may eventually lead to equipment failure. Many studies have shown that when a GIS insulation error occurs, the energy generated by discharge causes the SF6 gas to decompose and generate SF4, SF3, SF2, and various low-fluorine sulfides.

These low-fluoride sulfides react with trace moisture and the oxygen present in the SF6 gas and generate SOF4, SOF2, SO2F2, SO2, HF, and other compounds [5,6]. The common methods used at present to detect and analyze SF6 partial discharge decomposition products include gas chromatography and infrared absorption spectrometry, but all these methods are offline laboratory detection methods, and on-site detection with these methods is difficult to implement.Titanium dioxide nanotube arrays (TiO2NTs) are typical 3D nanomaterials that have numerous interesting physical and chemical properties. These materials are inexpensive and can thus be employed in numerous applications [7].

Studies have shown that compared with other nanostructure forms TiO2NTs have a large specific surface area and produce interesting nano-sized effects. TiO2NTs are utilized in photocatalysis, sensors, solar cells, etc. and exhibit a huge potential for development, having become one of the major topics in international GSK-3 nanomaterial research [8]. Miniature gas sensors prepared with TiO2NTs exhibit a fast response and high sensitivity. Several scholars have made great progress in this area in recent years, and TiO2NTs sensors are utilized to test for O2, NO2, H2, ethanol gas, etc. as sensitive materials [9�C11].A Pt-doped TiO2NTs gas sensor prepared through a pulsed electrochemical deposition method based on intrinsic TiO2NTs is developed in this study. The sensor’s capability to sense the major decomposition products of SF6 is evaluated.

Compared with the gas sensing properties of intrinsic TiO2NTs sensors, the Pt-doped nanoparticles change the gas sensing selectivity of the TiO2NTs sensor towards the main characteristic SF6 decomposition products.2.?Experimental Section2.1. Preparation of Pt-Doped TiO2NTsThe preparation of the Pt-doped TiO2NTs was based on electrochemical deposition on intrinsic TiO2NTs. The TiO2NTs were prepared by anodic oxidation [12]. With a conventional three-electrode system, Pt-doped nanoparticles were deposited onto TiO2NTs by pulsed electrodeposition.

Recently, atomic magnetic field sensors based on chip-scale micro

Recently, atomic magnetic field sensors based on chip-scale microfabrication (e.g., MEMS technology) were the basis of small and low-cost sensors [22�C27] that with their flexible optical and electrical wiring, could be located very close to the skull or thorax to measure MCG or MEG signals [22,26].In addition, MEMS technology has allowed the development of novel sensors [28]. These sensors can have important characteristics such as small size, lightweight, low power consumption, high resolution, and low cost using batch fabrication [29]. Several researchers [30�C41] have developed interesting magnetic field sensors based on MEMS technology. However, most of these sensors have only been tested in the laboratory and have not reached commercial use.

A large part of this problem is due to the lack of portable systems for signal processing of the magnetic field sensors. Thus, these sensors need signal conditioning systems to process their responses into suitable signals that can be used in data acquisition systems. These systems could then be adapted for potential biomedical applications and magnetic field sensors could thus compete commercially with several conventional magnetic field sensors.In this paper, we present a semi-portable prototype for real-time non-invasive detection of magnetic flux density of the thoracic cage of anesthetized and ventilated rats. This prototype consists of a MEMS sensor, a signal conditioning system and a virtual instrument. The signal conditioning system contains a precision instrumentation amplifier, a demodulator, a low-pass filter (LPF) and a buffer with operational amplifier.

The virtual instrument for digital signal processing includes an algorithm to implement infinite impulse response (IIR) filters, which are developed in Delphi Borland This prototype can be used for monitoring magnetic flux density close to nanotesla in some biomedical applications with resolution in the nanotesla range. However, more experimental and theoretical studies to significantly increase the sensitivity and resolution of this sensor type are needed such as an optimal design of the resonant structure, a vacuum Dacomitinib packaging, and reduction of the electronic noise.Following the introduction, the paper is organized as follows: Section 2 describes the MEMS design, signal conditioning system, and the virtual instrument.

Section 3 includes the experimental setup and results of a biomedical application using the semi-portable prototype of the MEMS sensor. The paper ends with a conclusion of our work.2.?Prototype DesignThis section includes the description of the MEMS sensor design and signal conditioning system, as well as its virtual instrument.2.1. MEMS DesignThe proposed prototype has a MEMS sensor to detect magnetic flux density using the Lorentz force, as shown in Figure 1.

The response of the sensing axis provides information about the a

The response of the sensing axis provides information about the applied angular velocity.In driving loop control of the vibratory gyroscopes, the main target is to originate an oscillation along the vibrating axis with constant amplitude at its resonant frequency. Moreover, in order to obtain high efficiency in delivering energy from one axis to another, the resonant frequencies of both driving and sensing axes must be equal, which is also called mode-matching. However, for high-end applications such as the military, automotive, medical surgery, etc., micro-gyroscopes cannot not meet the performance demands due to the bias-drift which is a critical issue for high performance micro-gyroscopes. In other words, even in the absence of any input (angular velocity) the output of the micro-gyroscope is non-zero.

This offset, which is usually referred to bias-drift, is present in the measured signal. Bias-drift is a complex phenomenon which is a combination of time-, temperature- and disturbance-dependent behaviors [4]. The main consideration of the phenomenon is the effect of the temperature fluctuation of the environment. This effect is an important source error in MEMS gyroscopes and is the most discussed [5�C7]. Furthermore, the relation between the temperature bias-drift and Brownian noise was investigated in the literature [8]. Some neural network-based methods were also employed in the TBD modeling and compensation of fiber optic gyroscopes and proved satisfactory [9,10].

A systematic identification and compensation method was accomplished by a JPL micro-gyroscope [11], as well as the TBD of a micro-gyroscope was investigated in terms of the resonance frequency variation induced by temperature Brefeldin_A variations. In addition, temperature dependent characteristics and compensation methods were discussed in [12]. However, the aforementioned compensation system needed an additional thermal resistor to detect the environment temperature and it was based on a MCU and PC due to the complicated compensation algorithm. In [13], the temperature characteristics of the micro-gyroscope were investigated and two different methods were proposed. However, the proposed compensation method still needed an extra temperature sensor, A/D and D/A converter, making the whole system hard to integrate on a single chip. Although a temperature control method was proposed to operate the gyroscope under optimal temperature to overcome the different temperature model due to the manufacturing errors and the influences of the peripheral circuit, an additional thermoelectric cooler and power consumption problems were induced. To eliminate the need for an extra temperature sensor, temperature self-sensing is discussed in [14].

However, in our study a group of three robots with basic sensor u

However, in our study a group of three robots with basic sensor units that are capable of detecting each other are desired to organize into a basic E formation starting from any arbitrary initial distribution.The modeling and stability analysis of the basic system considered in our study can also be extended and considered as a large interconnected system. Recently, analysis and stabilization of multiple time-delay interconnected systems is also receiving increasing attention from the scientific community [22�C26]. In practice, the interconnected systems include electric power systems, process control systems, different types of societal systems, and so on. Chen and Chiang [25] extended the T-S fuzzy control representation to the stability analysis for nonlinear interconnected systems with multiple time-delays using LMI theory and proposed a LMI-based stability criterion which can be solved numerically.

In [26], a fuzzy robust control design which combines H infinity control performance with T-S fuzzy control for the control of delayed nonlinear structural systems under external excitations is presented by them. The modeling error is further considered for resolution in this work. The emphasis of the work of Chen and Chiang is on the stability and stabilization of complex interconnected systems which are usually modeled as a unified formula. In contrast to many systems considered in the literature, in our study we are concerned with local interactive rule design so that an effective global behavior emerges from these rules.

By comparison, the time-delay and modeling error are not immensely significant in our study. Hence, they are not taken into account in the design and stability analysis of the TFA.The remainder of this paper is organized as follows: Section 2 gives the problem statement including the Batimastat state transition model and motion control equation of robotic sensors. The detailed design procedure of the interactive control algorithm, TFA, is presented in Section 3. In Section 4, we conduct the stability analysis of the TFA which can be executed by robotic sensors independently and asynchronously for E formation. Section 5 demonstrates E formation behavior and typical formation convergences of three neighboring robotic sensors through computer simulations. Finally, conclusions and future work are stated in Section 6.2.

?Problem StatementWe consider low cost homogeneous robots embodying simple and commonly available sensors. This means that the members cannot have strong capability, e.g., remote communication, and can only interact with neighbors or their environment. In fact, compared with single robotic sensors with complex structure and comprehensive function, there is less probability for a simple robotic sensor to be destroyed while performing tasks.

The remainder of this paper is organized as follows Section 2 gi

The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 gives a brief introduction to the wire bonding procedure and the function of transducer systems. In Section 3, the analytical modeling techniques and the iteration design method for the transducer are presented. In Section 4, the FEM simulation results are presented and discussed. Finally, the conclusions are drawn in Section 5.2.?The System Configuration and PerformancesWire bonding is the most commonly used interconnect technology in the microelectronics manufacturing industry [2]. In this interconnection method, bonding wires carry power and signals between the active semiconductor circuits and the lead frame or substrate metallization.

Gold wire is usually used because of its easy handling and strong bond with the bond pad metal.

Shown in Figure 1 are the steps involved in thermosonic bonding.Figure 1.Simplified procedure for making a ball-stitch wire interconnection with a capillary.The main steps are as follows [2]: (1) Gold wire is threaded through the capillary and electric flame-off (EFO) is used to form a ball on the end of the wire. (2) The capillary descends and presses the gold ball onto an aluminum terminal set on the surface of an IC chip or die. (3) Ultrasonic bursts of energy are applied with the capillary, creating a weld using atomic interdiffusion between the gold ball and bonding pad. (4) The capillary ascends vertically to play out sufficient wire to form a loop as it moves toward the second bond site.

(5) The capillary descends to make the second bond (crescent bond) onto the substrate or leadframe with ultrasonic energy, pressure and heat applied.

Batimastat (6) The wire clamp is closed and the capillary moves vertically to break the wire at the heel of the second bond. (7) The capillary rises to EFO height and can start a new bond cycle. Once a bonding cycle is completed, a precisely shaped wire connection called a wire loop is created as the capillary descends to a target position for the second bond.The schematic setup for electrical interconnect packaging Drug_discovery is shown through a schematic drawing in Figure 2. Elastic gold wires were soldered to an IC chip/die or printed circuit board (PCB). The chip or PCB was clamped via clamping plates.

Wires were soldered to the chip or PCB and connected to the substrate or leadframe. During automatic loading of the substrate, the clamping plate is in an upper position. As soon as the bonding chip or PCB has reached the bonding area, the clamping plate moves to the lower position in order to clamp the substrate to the heater stage, as shown in Figure 2. Simultaneously, the alignment process will be prepared after the loading is finished.

At present, new detection techniques such as image-based detectio

At present, new detection techniques such as image-based detection techniques, have become an indispensable feature in modern industrial production. During mass industrial production operations, image-based detection ensures the consistency of product detection and helps implement data quality monitoring and process control, thereby increasing detection security, reliability, efficiency and precision, and reducing production costs. According to the different characteristics detected image-based detection applications are categorized as dimension measurement, surface quality detection, structural quality detection and system operating status monitoring [1]. Among these applications, dimension measurement and surface quality detection are the most commonly used.

Dimension measurement mainly involves characteristics of a target such as appearance, shape and position. It is also used in other fields, such as detection of discontinuous arc roundness in the field of machining [2], assemblage clearance in the field of automotive industry [3], and excursion and deflection of chips in the field of electronics, such as in printed circuit board (PCB) production [4]. Surface detection mainly involves detection of defects that impact product surface quality, such as fovea, scratches, cracks, air bladders, holes, wear, roughness, texture, and burrs, such as in steel plate surface defect detection [5], surface roughness measurement [6], tunnel wall surface defect detection [7], welding seam defect detection [8], fabric surface defect detection [9], and wood defect detection [10].

In this paper an image-based detection technique used for pivot bearing dimension measurement and surface defect detection is described. Illumination system design has a direct relationship with final imaging quality, and it is one of Carfilzomib the keys for the success of any vision detection system. Improper AV-951 illumination may give rise to many problems; for example, overexposure may hide true defects, shadows may cause edge false drops, and non-uniform illumination may cause image segmentation difficulties. As a result, illumination quality can directly impact image analysis results [11].

2 ?ExperimentalFigure 1 shows the

2.?ExperimentalFigure 1 shows the nearly experimental moreover setup (a) and the DMA (differential mobility analyzer; Wyckoff Co., Ltd.) equipped with a Faraday cup (FC) for the aerosol measurement. Since Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries the size range was found to below 100 nm in the previous study [19], the DMA was optimized to measure aerosols smaller than 100 nm. The experimental setup consisted of the plasma reactor, power supply, oscilloscope, and gas cylinders. A cylindrical surface discharge plasma reactor was used in this study. The inner diameter and effective length of the quartz tube were 15 mm and 200 mm, respectively. A coil-type electrode (0.45 mm diameter) was set at the inner surface of the quartz tube, which served as a high-voltage electrode.

Silver paste was painted on the outer surface of the Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries reactor as a ground electrode.

The plasma reactor was energized with AC high-voltage. Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries The input signal from the function generator (Tektronix, AFG 310) was amplified 2000-fold by a Trek 20/20B amplifier, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries and then applied to the plasma reactor. The charge Q was measured with a capacitor of 1��F connected in series to the grounded line of the plasma reactors. The discharge power (W) dissipated in the plasma reactor was measured by V-Q Lissajous figure method. Specific input energy (SIE), discharge Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries power (W) transferred to the unit Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries gas flow rate (liters per min; LPM), is calculated from the following equation:Specific input energy (J/L)=discharge power (watt)gas flow rate (L/min)��60(1)Figure 1.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup (a) and differential mobility analyzer (DMA) Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries and Faraday cup (FC) for aerosol measurement (b).

The units of J/L can be converted into Wh/Nm3 by multiplying by a factor of 3.6. Applied voltage and discharge current were measured using a digital oscilloscope (Tektronix, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries TDS 3032) connected with AV-951 a high voltage probe (Tektronix, P6015A) and an current probe (Pearson Electronics Inc., Model 2877), respectively.The shape of the aerosol was measured using field-emission Anacetrapib scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM; TOPCON Co. Model DS-720). The discharge with N2 gas became unstable with time as the deposition of solid products occurred on the inner surface of the plasma reactor.

Considering this property, aerosol sampling chemical information time was varied from about 30 min for N2 to about 120 min for air. The chemical structure of the aerosol was measured using a Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectrometer sellckchem (Perkin Elmer, Spectrum One). The diffractive reflectance cell was purged with pure nitrogen (2 LPM) during the measurements. The spectrum data were taken by averaging 60 scans with the resolution of 2
Francisella tularensis is a tiny, pleomorphic, gram-negative coccobacillus responsible for epizootics of tularemia. F.