Numerous genes have already been reported to perform critical roles in cell proliferation, cell cycle and cell migration according to gene functional evaluation. For in stance, two vital cell cycle regulators TP53INPI and CDKN2B are observed to become deregulated in MKN28 cells tranfected with pCDNA3. 1 ZIC1. Our success indicate that ZIC1 potentially regulates a number of downstream genes associated with gastric tumorigenesis. Discussion Expanding proof has proven that ZIC1 is involved with the progression of a few tumours. It seems that ZIC1 is aberrantly expressed in selected sorts of cancer of Hh signaling for the expression of p21 and cyclin D1. AGS, BGC823 and SGC7901 gastric cancer cell lines were taken care of with cyclopamine, a steroidal alkaloid that interacts right with Smo to inhibit Hh signaling, or DMSO control for 24 h. We observed the expression degree of p21 was markedly up regulated, though cyclin D1 down regulated following tumour cells have been handled with cyclopamine.
Of note, blocking the Shh sig naling pathway by administration of cyclopamine doesn’t affect the expression amounts of ZIC1 mRNA in BGC823 and SGC7901 cells by RT PCR assays. The ab sent or reduced expression of ZIC1 mRNA in gastric cancer cells was mainly meditated by promoter DNA methylation as we described previously. We also evaluated the results selleck chemicals of Shh signaling on gastric cancer cell migration. As shown in Figure 4 C and D, AGS, BGC823 and SGC7901 gastric cancer cell lines showed sig nificant lessen in cellular migration just after administration with cyclopamine for 24 h. Collectively, these effects show that ZICI might modulate the cell and differentially functions as being a tumour suppressor or oncogenic gene. As an example, ZIC1 expression was reported to be minimal or absent in gastrointestinal and lung cancer cell lines, and was discovered to suppress gastrointes tinal cancer cell proliferation.
In contrast, above expression of ZIC1 in liposarcoma selleck Topotecan was noticed to promote cell proliferation and invasion. We and many others have demonstrated the epigenetic modula tions together with DNA methylation and histone remodel ing, and genetic mutations might contribute to its differential expression patterns in cancers. It is getting to be clear that as a zinc finger transcription element, ZIC1 may possibly modulate a number of downstream genes in neural tissue, colorectal cancer and liposarcoma cells. On the other hand, little is known regarding the mechanism underlying ZIC1 function from the development and professional gression of gastric cancer. Underscoring the key path strategies and downstream targets regulated by ZIC1 might facilitate our comprehending of its roles in tumorigenesis. Right here, we have now demonstrated that overexpression of ZIC1 effects in considerable inhibition of cell survival and impairment of cell migration. ZIC1 suppresses the Shh, PI3K and MAPK signaling pathways which are crucial for the regulation of cell cycle distributions and cell mi gration in gastric cancer.
To this finish, cells were pre taken care of for 1 h with twenty uM of either PD98059 or SB203680, or with 40 uM of GM6001, and after that stimulated with ten ngmL TGF b1. Remedy within the MDA MB 231 cell line only with ERK12, p38 MAPK or MMPs inhibi tors did not have a important result while in the migratory and invasive phenotype in relation to cells treated with automobile. Yet, all of these inhibitors had been capable to sig nificantly block the TGF b1 induced migration and invasion possible of MDA MB 231 cells, suggesting that TGF b1 without a doubt utilizes ERK12 and p38 MAPK to mediate the upregulation of MMPs. Discussion Metastasis is the final stage in tumor progression, being the main component linked with cancer promoted deaths. The stability among the routines of MMPs and MMP inhibitors could be the essential regulator of ECM degra dation and, consequently, of cellular phenotypes related to motile and invasive capacities.
Similar to other cancer styles, the breast cancer progression approach is positively correlated with enhanced MMPs and MMP inhibitors expression and action, suggesting a coordinate reg ulation mechanism. In this report, we demonstrated, for that first time, that TGF b1 is in a position to modulate MMP, TIMP and RECK expression in MDA natural product library MB 231 human breast cancer cell line as a result of ERK12 and p38MAPK. Both of these transducer pathways had been very important to the TGF b1 enhanced migration and invasion phenotypes, yet, every single mediated the TGF b1 signal for MMPs and their inhibitors in a precise method. The important position of TGF b during various phases of cancer progression continues to be broadly reported. However, the status of numerous members of this pathway in human cancers remains rather complex and unclear. The TGF b receptors and their downstream transducers are usually lost, mutated or attenuated in human carci nomas, which includes pancreatic, colon and gastric tumors.
Alternatively, other tumor sorts, this kind of as breast tumors, present substantially reduce mutation frequency in these TGF b signaling effectors, but show many altera tions inside their expression ranges. Only handful of reports addressed over a single TGF b pathway mem ber concurrently. Because of the lack of information relating to profile complexity on the TGF b network ele ments and their dependence selleck inhibitor within the cell context, we 1st carried out a general characterization from the TGF b iso varieties and their receptors by mRNA expression analysis in a panel of five human breast cancer cell lines display ing various invasive and metastatic capacities. We showed that, similar to MMPs, TIMPs and RECK, the mRNA amounts of TGF b receptors I and II, are expressed at a higher degree while in the most aggressive cell line, as com pared towards the less invasive ones, except for TbRI that was also really expressed in ZR 75 1 cells.
In addition, elevated Rae 1 ranges were observed in St5 samples compared to con trols. Rae 1 is usually a ligand which activates NK cells by means of the NKG2D receptor, having said that sustained elevation of Rae1 effects in impaired NK cell function as well as a subsequent reduce in anti tumour immunosurveillance. Thus we’d predict the inflamed transgenic tissue environment can be inhibitory for NKT and NK cytotoxic routines. Further characterisation from the T cell subsets uncovered that 7% have been constructive for CD4 andor CD8 inside the transgenic samples com pared to four. 3% in controls. Additionally, the transgenic samples showed a sizable proportion of leuko cytes detrimental for CD4 and CD8, presumably like the mast cells and neutrophils mentioned over. The CD8,CD4 ratio for transgenic in contrast to NSC was 1. two and two. six, suggesting a relative increase in the CD4 population inside the transgenic samples.
Co stain ing within the CD8 populations selleck exposed that practically all were granzyme B in each transgenic and handle samples, indicating the cytotoxic T cells inside the ear tissue are activated and that this is regular, while you will discover much more within the transgenic tissue in contrast towards the controls. No CD8 cells had been located to co stain with CD25 and FoxP3. Evaluation within the CD4 cells revealed a proportion in the transgenic samples co staining for both CD25 and FoxP3, indicative of Treg cells, whilst no this kind of population was obvious in controls. So the transgenic samples display enhanced numbers of CD4 T cells with an enhanced proportion of Treg cells compared to controls. Immunoglobulin deposition in the transgenic tissue Immunoglobulin deposition is really a recognised feature of sev eral persistent inflammatory ailments, this kind of as rheumatoid arthritis and also the lively role of B cells in autoimmune condition is evidenced by a lessen in disease severity fol lowing B cell depletion in patients.
Immunoglobulin deposition along with a B cell purpose in illness is additionally proposed for various carcinomas, such as breast and prostate cancer and was observed experimentally inside the skin of human papillomavirus sixteen transgenic mice. To be able to establish if immunoglobulin deposition also occurs selleck chemicals while in the L2LMP1CAO mice, the ear tissues have been examined by western blotting and IHC. Biological replicates of trans genic tissue at stages one, 2 and 5 in addition to controls revealed hefty and light chain IgG antibody bands in all samples, these were slightly improved in St2 samples com pared to controls but had been markedly additional extreme within the St5 extracts. By IHC, the IgG deposition was observed to become pronounced throughout the dermis with the transgenic tissue and not in controls. For you to assess if B cells had been infiltrating the tissue, sections had been immunostained with antibodies to CD20 and CD19. No staining was observed within the skin samples making use of anti CD20, on the other hand, rather sparse positively stained lymphocytes with plasma cell physical appearance within the transgenic dermis were apparent utilizing anti CD19, whilst no exact staining could be detected in controls.
Moreover, we noticed that knockdown of Smad4 working with RNAi diminished endogenous amounts of the two XIAP mRNA and protein. Altogether, these results indicate that autocrine as effectively as paracrine TGF b induced signalling induces XIAP gene expression inside a Smad dependent method. TGF b isoforms lessen PTEN protein content within a XIAP dependent manner. We now have previously shown that overexpression of XIAP induces polyubiquitination and degradation of PTEN protein. Thus, we hypothesized that by their role inside the regulation of XIAP gene expression, TGF b isoforms reg ulate PTEN protein content in uterine carcinoma cells. In agreement with this particular, we observed that upregulation of XIAP amounts by every single TGF b isoform was accompanied by a rise of polyubiquitination of PTEN as well as a reduce of PTEN protein ranges.
Pre treatment on the cells with proteasome inhibi tor MG 132 prevented TGF b isoforms from selleck chemicals AZD1080 decreasing PTEN protein articles, displaying that TGF b induced lower of PTEN includes proteasome activity. More, we discovered that knockdown of XIAP implementing RNAi ahead of publicity to just about every TGF b isoform prevented TGF b from reducing PTEN protein ranges. Altogether, these success reveal that each TGF b isoform negatively regulates PTEN information in uterine carcinoma cells, within a XIAP dependent manner. TGF b decreases PTEN protein content material by iso form certain pathways. We now have investigated the signal ing pathways involved in downregulation of PTEN in response on the distinct TGF b isoforms. Considering that Smad pathway is involved with the upregulation of XIAP gene expression by TGF b isoforms and that TGF b regulates PTEN information within a XIAP dependent method, we to begin with investigated if TGF b regulates PTEN content material within a Smad dependent manner. We identified that interference with Smad4 RNA prevented every TGF b isoform from decreasing PTEN protein articles.
Then, blockade of ERK pathway exercise utilizing PD98059, resulting in decreased ranges of phos phorylated ERK, had no effect on TGF b induced lower of PTEN protein levels. Nonetheless, pharmacological inhibition selleck inhibitor of PI3 K exercise, reflected by decreased levels of phosphorylated Akt, prevented TGF b3 induced, but not TGF b1 or TGF b2 induced, reduction of PTEN protein articles. These final results indicate that TGF b decreases PTEN protein content material in the Smad dependent method, but in addition as a result of isoform specific pathways as only TGF b3 regulates PTEN information within a PI3 K dependent method. Smad and NF B signaling pathway involvement in TGF b mediated XIAP upregulation. Right after verification with the TGF b mediated XIAP upregulation and concomi tant lower in PTEN protein written content, we investigated if this signal is predominantly delivered via Smad dependent andor Smad independent pathways.
More cellular protrusions of mesenchymal stempro genitor cells exhibit an excessive and approximately punctuate pattern on their surface. It may be acknowledged that indi vidual cellular protrusions line by the interstitial room up to the lamina fibroreticularis on the tip of the CD ampulla. Higher magnification in TEM of ruthenium red la beled specimens depicts the basal lamina with the tip of the CD ampulla isn’t going to exhibit a recognizable lam ina rara, lamina densa and lamina fibroreti cularis. As a substitute the identified layers of the basal lamina are comprised as being a standard broad ribbon covering the total tip with the CD ampulla. In the place on the lamina fibroreticularis strands of extracellular matrix line to the interstitial area. On top of that, bundles of translucent fibers turned out to be vis ible inside of the interstitial space. Their center appears translucent, though the surface is covered by extracellular matrix marked by extreme ruthenium red label.
Because the fibers do not exhibit a repeating time period, they cannot be ascribed to a certain type of collagen. It can be even more visible that the neighboring mesenchymal stemprogenitor cells are covered by a roughly structured coat labeled by ru thenium red. Large magnification in TEM depicts that ruthenium red label will not be only to the surface of cells but is additionally observed in type of extended clouds on selleck inhibitor neighboring added cellular matrix inside of the interstitial space. Fixation with GA and tannic acid While in the final series fixation was carried out by GA and tan nic acid. Lower magnification focuses on the basal facet with the tip of the CD ampulla. The micrograph clearly depicts that the comprehensive basal lamina is covered by an electron dense coat as detected soon after fixation with GA containing ruthenium red.
The inten sively stained pattern protrudes through the basal lamina of your CD ampulla by way of erismodegib chemical structure the interstitial room towards the surface of neighboring mesenchymal stemprogeni tor cells. Larger magnification in TEM illuminates that extreme tannic acid label is located in the basal lamina covering the tip within the CD ampulla. However, only a dis continuously labeled lamina rara gets visible, whereas the lamina densa and lamina fibroreticularis are noticed like a broad ribbon. Even further tannic acid labels to a large degree strands of extracellular matrix inside the interstitial area. All protrusions as well as cell surface of neighboring mesenchymal stemprogenitor cells exhibit an extreme coat of tannic acid good materials. It’s obvi ous that not the total interstitial space but only part of it is actually labeled by tannic acid. In thus far the result speaks in favour for a stain certain label rather than for an unspe cific background signal. Higher magnification in TEM finally demonstrates that tannic acid label just isn’t equally distributed but is concen trated specifically areas on the interstitial area.
Cortisol synthesis inhibition, lung fluid absorption, and pERK expression Lung fluid absorption and pERK expression have been investi gated in fetal guinea pigs soon after IL 1pretreatment with and with no MP pretreatment. Con trol 61D gestation fetal lungs had been not impacted by MP pre remedy and in control 68D gestation fetal lungs MP pretreatment reversed lung fluid absorption to fluid secre tion. IL 1induced lung fluid absorption at 61D gestation was also reversed to fluid secretion and IL 1stimulated lung fluid absorption at 68D gestation was wholly inhibited by MP pretreatment. IL 1induced pERK expression at 61D gestation was also atten uated by MP pretreatment. MP pretreatment had significantly less effect on 68D gestation pERK expression, although the IL 1stimulated pERK expression was attenuated.
Discussion This study expands on two earlier investigations from our laboratory and investigates components on the intracellular signaling machinery accountable for transducing the sig nal from IL 1to an induced or stimulated fetal lung fluid absorption. The novel finding in this examine was that MAP kinase activation followed maternal IL 1exposure and elevated plasma cortisol concentrations and seemed to get at least partly accountable for selleckchem Raf Inhibitors the induced and stimulated fluid absorption costs at 61 and 68D gestation, respec tively. Guinea pig lungs convert from fluid secretion to fluid absorption 3?5 days prior to birth. The results ful transition from fluid secretion to absorption from the lung is immediately relevant to infant breathing and postnatal lung perform. Many current research have suggested a novel position for IL 1 in lung maturation, the place IL 1may accelerate lung maturation in guinea pigs by accel erating the epithelial conversion to lung fluid absorption all through gestation.
It’s been demonstrated in sev eral research that lung fluid is reabsorbed sec ondary to Na absorption. The molecular mechanism for this has been recommended to be the epithelial Na channel and this channel is delicate more info here to amiloride inhibi tion. MAP kinases just like ERK and JNK have previously been demonstrated for being activated by cytokines and stress responses. Whilst the activation with the MEK/ ERK pathway and its downstream transcription things are the most effective characterized, this signaling cascade has also been reported in regulation of various publish transcrip tional mechanisms associated to your translational machinery. This occurs mostly by means of regulation in the eukaryotic ini tiation issue 4E as well as the p70s6K. In multi ple investigations, it’s been demonstrated in adult rats that dopamine and isoproterenol likewise as development variables can upregulate Na,K ATPase expression via activating the MEK/ERK MAP kinase pathway.
7 fold greater than in MCF 10A cells. Incubation on the exact same cells for an extra 24 h in Mito ChM free media brought about a additional pronounced distinction in intracellular levels of Mito ChM in MCF seven and MCF 10A cells. Incubation with 1 uM of Mito ChM for 48 h brought on a six fold big difference in intracellular accumulation of Mito ChM. Comparable experiments had been carried out implementing Mito ChMAc. Mito ChMAc underwent intracellular hydrolysis, forming largely Mito ChM in each cell lines just after a 4 h incubation. This was even further confirmed by LC MSMS equipped with a variety of reaction monitoring abilities. Incubation of both MCF 7 and MCF 10A cells with 10 uM Mito ChMAc induced considerably increased ranges of Mito ChM as when compared with Mito ChMAc, without obvious distinctions in hydrolytic actions amongst the two cell lines.
Steady with Figure 5A, the intracellular concentration of Mito ChM was selelck kinase inhibitor appreciably greater in MCF 7 cells as when compared to MCF 10A following a four h remedy with Mito ChMAc. Related to MCF 7 cells, enhanced accumulation of Mito ChM was also observed in MDA MB 231 cells. Effects of Mito ChM on tumor development, Breast cancer xenograft model We investigated the potential of Mito ChM to exert che motherapeutic effects in an in vivo breast tumor model. 1st, we tested the accumulation of Mito ChM in tumor tissue, as in contrast with selected organs, which includes heart, liver and kidney. Mito ChM accumulated selectively in tumor and kidney, but not in heart or liver tissue, as measured 48 h soon after acquiring the last dose of Mito ChM.
Administration of Mito ChM led to a 45% reduce while in the bioluminescence signal in tensity as in comparison with the handle mice right after four weeks of therapy. On top of that, this treatment method substantially S3I-201 ic50 diminished tumor excess weight by 30% as when compared with the handle mice, without having triggering vital adjustments in kidney, liver and heart weights or other key morphological modifications. Antiglycolytic agents synergistically improve the anti proliferative and cytotoxic results of Mito ChM and Mito ChMAc At increased concentrations, Mito ChM inhibits both OCR and ECAR and exerts selective toxicity to MCF seven cells. We decided to investigate irrespective of whether dual targeting with mitochondrial and glycolytic inhibitors would boost the efficacy of Mito ChM at decrease concentrations. To this finish, cells had been handled with Mito ChM mixed with glycolytic inhibitor, two deoxyglucose.
As shown in Figure 7A, there was a considerable decrease in colony formation in MCF 7 cells when treated with 2 DG while in the presence of one uM Mito ChM. Mito ChM more potently decreased the survival fraction in MCF 7 cells as in comparison to MCF 10A cells from the presence of 2 DG. The mixed treatment with two DG and one uM Mito ChM or 1 uM Mito ChMAc also triggered a dramatic improve in cytotoxicity in MCF seven as when compared with MCF 10A cells.
However CD133 IHC expression isn’t an independent prognostic factor in individuals with stage II and III CRC. Background For the duration of advancement of new anti cancer medication procedures to discriminate in between efficient and non successful com lbs and, on a person patient basis, between re sponders and non responders are of wide interests. For this goal unique imaging biomarkers are studied. The non purchase Tipifarnib invasive imaging modality positron emission tomography assesses biological processes in intact living tissue. The tracer three deoxy 3 fluorothymidine is a thymidine analogue that is definitely applied to image cell proliferation in vivo by PET, by measuring the exercise of thymidine kinase one which can be up regulated from the S phase of cell cycle.
Pre clinical scientific studies have evaluated tumor cell proliferation by utilization of FLT PET soon after therapy with several unique anti cancer agents in different tumor models. The outcomes are variable, ranging from a great correlation amongst early modifications in FLT tumor uptake and tumor response to no alter in FLT tumor uptake in spite of a fantastic tumor response. The FLT tracer is vali selleckchem enzalutamide dated against the proliferation marker Ki67 in quite a few tumor forms. Ki67 protein measurements by im munohistochemistry are presently viewed as the gold standard for measurement of cell proliferation in tumor tissue specimens. The tracer 2 deoxy 2 fluoro D glucose is right now essentially the most broadly used PET tracer for detecting and characterizing cancers. Changes in FDG uptake following anti cancer therapy have already been analyzed in numerous clinical scientific studies, nevertheless, with vari capable results.
The Response Evaluation Criteria In Strong Tumors is really a common system to assess tumor response by utilization of anatomical imaging procedures as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. One particular disadvantage of implementing the tumor dimension as being a response criterion for remedy will be the quantity of time it calls for ahead of a volume response be comes evident. Hence new biological measurements are studied, and new pointers are suggested employing e. g. FDG PET for measurement of therapy effect. Belinostat is often a histone deacetylase inhibitor, a somewhat new class of anti cancer drugs inhibiting the enzymes that deacetylate histone proteins. Histone acetylation is to the epigenetic degree involved in regulation of gene expression. Belinostat induces anti cancer activity in portion by improving histone acetylation in tumor cells which triggers alterations in gene expres sion. Nonetheless, the precise mechanism of how the aberrant gene expression leads to anti tumor activity re mains unknown. Belinostat inhibits development of human ovarian cancer cell lines in vitro and belinostat has anti tumor action in vivo in human A2780 ovarian cancer xenografts in mice.
Preoperative radiological examinations were carried out inside of a single week in advance of surgery and included posteroanterior and lateral radiographs of your spine taken in the standardized procedure in standing position, side bending posteroanterior radiographs made with all the patient supine bending to your side from the curve convexity so as to correct the deformity during the frontal plane and CT scans with the thorax and spine performed in the curve apex. All radiographic measurements had been performed from the exact same investigator with the exact same goni ometer applying Cobbs method to assess the main curve severity in frontal and thoracic kyphosis in sagittal plane. The flexibility index was calculated according for the formula, Fi Cobbstanding Cobbsupine bendingCobbstanding.
The axial plane deformity was measured by spinal rota tion angle relative to sagittal plane RAsag and rib hump index RHi as described by Aaro and Dahlborn, In the course of surgical treatment bilateral selleck facet removal was per formed during the regimen manner and bone and cartilage specimens from inferior articular spinal processes in the curve apex concavity and convexity have been harvested. Within the identical time bilateral samples of paravertebral muscle tissue on the apical degree and 10 ml of individuals peripheral blood were collected. Every sample of bone, cartilage and muscular tissue too as blood specimens have been positioned in separate sterile tubes, adequately recognized and instantly snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at 80 C until finally molecular analysis. Extraction of total RNA from osseous, cartilaginous, muscular and blood tissue samples Tissue samples have been homogenized using the utilization of PolytronW. Total RNA was isolated from tissue samples with all the utilization of TRIZOLW reagent accor ding to the companies instructions.
Extracts of complete RNA have been treated with DNAase I and selleckchem Maraviroc purified using the utilization of RNeasy Mini Spin Kolumn in accordance with manufacturers protocol. The high-quality of RNA was estimated by electrophoresis on the 1% agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. The RNA abundance was determined by absorbance at 260 nm making use of a Gene Quant II spectrophotometer. Complete RNA served being a matrix for QRT PCR and microarray evaluation. VDRs, VDRl, and endogenous controls B actin and GAPDH mRNA quantification in osseous, cartilaginous, muscular and blood tissue samples by Quantitative Serious Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction. The quantitative analysis was carried out with the utilization of Sequence Detector ABI PRISM 7000. The conventional curve was appointed for specifications of B actin. Neither B actin nor GAPDH mRNA could serve as endogenous management as statistically vital differences had been observed in between quantity of copies of GAPDH and B actin among convex and concave side of your curve in bone and paravertebral muscle groups likewise as involving Juvenile and Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis in blood tissue sam ples.
Stained cells had been analyzed by flow cytometry. The per centage of cells from the diverse stages and the percentage of necrosis cells had been calculated making use of Mod Fit LT computer software. Western blot assay K7, U2OS and 143B cells had been treated with distinct concentrations of shikonin for 8 hrs. Cells were washed twice with PBS alternative, lysed with RIPA Lysis Buffer and protease inhibitor. Tumor tissues have been retrieved from 80 C storage and immersed rapidly in liquid nitrogen. The resulting pow der was lysed with RIPA Lysis Buffer and protease in hibitor. Protein concentrations have been determined with Pierce BCA Protein Assay Kit. Equivalent quantities of total protein had been boiled and electrophoretically seperated on a 10% polyacryl amide gel at 80 volts. The proteins were transferred to a nitrocellulose filter membrane.
Membranes were blocked for 60 min with 5% milk options prepared in PBS, incubated overnight at four C with 1,one thousand dilutions within the key antibodies, washed three times for 10 min each time with Tween twenty PBS, incu bated for one hour with the appropriate peroxidase conjugated secondary antibody. Mem branes were washed with Tween twenty PBS 3 times for 10 min every single and were formulated applying the Odyssey two colour infraed laser imaging selleck technique. The signal produced by Action was utilised as an inner manage. Animal experiments Animal experiments were performed on four week old fe male mice. Mice were housed inside a common animal laboratory with absolutely free accessibility to water and foods. They were kept underneath continual environmental condi tions using a twelve hour light dark cycle. All operations had been performed beneath aseptic disorders. All of the animal relevant procedures had been approved from the Animal Care and Use Committee of the Tenth Peoples Hospital of Shanghai.
This study was also accepted by the Sci ence and Engineering Commission of Shanghai Munici pality with selleckchem Maraviroc the permit quantity 2011 RES1. Mice tibial tumor versions and therapy routine Balbc mice had been obtained from Shanghai Slac Laboratory Animal Co. Ltd. K7 cells have been digested and washed by cold PBS for three times, sus pended in cold PBS. The last concentration of K7 cells was 1 108ml. The cell suspension was injected into medullary cavity of tibia. Mice have been divided into two groups, shikonin group and management group. Three weeks later, once the tumors in the tibia have been macroscopic, shikonin group was injected with shikonin while handle group was injected with 5% DMSO. Each groups have been injected intraperitoneally every other day for 7 times in all. The mice were euthanized two days after the last injection. The main tumor dimension and lung me tastasis have been observed. Posterior limb with tumors and lungs have been weighted. Necrotic degree of key tumors and lung metastasis was detected by HE stain. The ex pression ranges of RIP1 and RIP3 in major tumor tis sues had been determined by Western blot.