2). The tested genes showed the same trend in expression by Northern as
in the microarray. Figure 2 Northern blot analyses of CcpA-dependent genes. A, Transcription of genes showing differential expression in the ccpA mutant in the absence of glucose. Gene expression at an OD600 of 1 in strain Newman and its ΔccpA mutant is shown. B, Transcription of CcpA-dependent, glucose-dependent genes in strain Newman and its ΔccpA mutant. Cells were grown to an OD600 of 1, cultures where split and glucose added to one half (+), while the other half remained without glucose (-). RNA was sampled at an OD600 of 1, and after 30 min. RNA loading is represented by the intensity of the 16S rRNA. Data are representative for at least two independent experiments. MA, microarray data. CcpA-dependent https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Nilotinib.html Emricasan research buy differential gene expression without glucose addition Genes showing an altered expression in the
ΔccpA mutant compared to the wild-type when growing in LB alone, without glucose addition, are listed in Additional files 1: Genes with lower expression in wild-type versus ΔccpA mutant, and 2: Genes with higher expression in wild-type versus ΔccpA mutant. These genes made up the largest regulatory group found in our study (226 genes). Only a minor part of this group of genes (38 out of 226) contained putative cre-sites in their promoter regions or were part of operons with putative cre-sites, suggesting that CcpA may affect the expression of the majority of these genes indirectly. Such indirect effects may reflect differences in the generation of metabolites due to ccpA inactivation, which might serve as cofactors for the regulation of further genes, and/or to a CcpA-dependent control of regulatory
proteins or RNAs. Our findings suggest that glucose-independent effects due to CcpA might play a LY3023414 molecular weight particularly important role in S. aureus. For a better understanding, the genes of this category were grouped into functional Glycogen branching enzyme classes (Fig. 3A). While unknown proteins represented the largest group (61 genes), this group was followed by proteins of carbon metabolism (26 genes), transport/binding proteins and lipoproteins (25 genes), and proteins of amino acid metabolism (19 genes). Figure 3 Functional classes of CcpA-dependent genes. Functional classification according to the DOGAN website  of genes that were found to be regulated by CcpA in a glucose-independent (A) or a glucose-dependent way (B).