A 6-run uniform design was used to investigate five factors. Under the best operating conditions among
the six runs, 29.0 g L-1 EPS was produced at 102 h. This condition was used as the starting point for further investigation on the two statistically significant factors, the pH and the agitation speed. An 8-run 3-level custom design that investigates up to second-order effects was used in the second stage. An optimal zone of operating conditions for large quantity of high MW pullulan production was identified. A concentration of 23.3 g L-1 EPS was produced at 78 h. This is equivalent to an EPS productivity of 0.30 g L-1 h(-1). The corresponding apparent viscosity of the broth was 0.38 Pa s at the shear rate of 10 s(-1).”
The purpose of this study was to provide a description of the language and speech (intelligibility, voice, DZNeP resonance, articulation) in a 7-year-old Dutch speaking boy with Nager syndrome. To reveal these features comparison CT99021 inhibitor was made with an age and gender related child with a similar palatal or hearing problem.
Methods: language was tested with an age appropriate language test namely the Dutch version of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals. Regarding articulation a phonetic inventory, phonetic analysis and phonological process analysis was performed. A nominal scale with four categories was used to judge the overall speech intelligibility. A voice and resonance assessment included a videolaryngostroboscopy, a perceptual evaluation, acoustic analysis and nasometry.
Results: The most striking communication problems in this child were expressive and receptive language delay, moderately impaired speech intelligibility, the presence of phonetic and phonological disorders, resonance disorders and a high-pitched voice. The explanation
for this pattern of communication is not completely straightforward. The language and the phonological impairment, only present in the child with the Nager syndrome, are not part of a more general developmental delay. The resonance disorders can be related to the cleft palate, but were not present in the child with the isolated cleft palate. One might assume that the cul-de-sac resonance and the much decreased mandibular movement and the restricted tongue lifting are caused selleck kinase inhibitor by the restricted jaw mobility and micrognathia. To what extent the suggested mandibular distraction osteogenesis in early childhood allows increased mandibular movement and better speech outcome with increased oral resonance is subject for further research.
Conclusion: According to the results of this study the speech and language management must be focused on receptive and expressive language skills and linguistic conceptualization, correct phonetic placement and the modification of hypernasality and nasal emission. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Mediastinal abscess is a rare presentation of infections involving the mediastinum.