Therefore, in our study, much effort was made to carefully construct and test the experimental conditions in order to minimize the dissipation factors except for the surface see more roughness of the resonator. Methods SiC provides superior
material properties for high-frequency applications due to its high stiffness and low density, as well as its good tunability due to its higher thermal conductivity than other NEMS materials such as silicon and silicon nitride. Even though it has excellent mechanical properties including a high Young’s modulus and low density, a drawback of SiC is its low electric conductivity. In this work, Al layers were applied to the surface of SiC to improve Tipifarnib its conductance. This hybrid layer structure (Al/SiC) is a main loss factor but still results in comparable performance to other materials, which must be produced via careful fabrication processes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the experimental apparatus and a fully suspended beam are presented in Figure 1a. The electrical equivalent circuit model is shown in Figure 1b. R, L, and C are the resistance, inductance, and capacitance, respectively, to model the fundamental resonance response of the beam resonator. The further electron and phonon scattering due to the rough surface will induce higher resistance, R, and more damping. Re is the equivalent resistance
due to the substrate and other environment including the energy loss or thermal dissipation. Also, there are parasitic capacitance and inductance, Cp and Lp, from the beam structure or metal pad and read out. RT, the thermal resistance represents the energy dissipation due to the DC thermal voltage applied for the frequency tuning. The composite nanoresonators are 12-μm long, 100-nm wide, and 130-nm (3C-SiC 30 nm, Al 100 nm) thick as shown in Figure 1c. Ultrathin single crystal 3C-SiC films were grown on a silicon wafer by a heteroepitaxial atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition process in which SiH4 and
C3H8 were used as precursors  followed by deposition of the Al layer. In order to analyze the Parvulin surface roughness effects of the resonator, careful fabrication is essential and mandatory. It is crucial to determine the final surface roughness of the Al layer, which is the topmost layer in the resonator, even though the final roughness of the resonator surface is determined by both the 3C-SiC and Al fabrication conditions. The initial deposition conditions are extremely important for stacking the atomic arrangement, which mostly determines the final roughness of the resonator. We gradually changed the deposition rate of Al from a very low level to moderate conditions for each sample. The initial deposition rate of less than 0.2 nm/min was gradually increased to 1 nm/min.