These observations suggest that suitable candidates for bacterial inoculants in Silmitasertib purchase silage preparation should be screened at the strain level. Strain TO1002 may be useful for producing silage inoculants for the production of well-preserved whole crop paddy rice silage. Paddy rice fields occupy over 11% of the total global cultivated area, and the major rice-producing countries of Asia account for over half of the world’s population (Maclean et al., 2002). In Japan, there has been growing interest in paddy rice not only as a main dish for human consumption but also as a forage crop for livestock. As the result of population
increase and urbanization in other Asian countries, the growth in demand for animal protein such as meat is rising, and may result in increased utilization of forage crops, such as paddy rice. Silage with good quality depends on appropriate fermentation after storage, which results in the production of sufficient acid to
inhibit the growth of microorganisms causing spoilage (McDonald et al., 1991). In general, well-preserved silage is characterized by different parameters, such as a pH value of approximately 4.2 or lower, high lactic acid content, low butyric acid and volatile basic nitrogen Raf inhibitor (VBN) concentrations, high dry matter (DM) recovery, and low counts of undesirable microorganisms (McDonald et al., 1991; Yunus et al., 2000). The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play important roles in adequate acidification and production of higher-quality silage. Insufficient ifenprodil production of lactic acid by LAB results in poor-quality silage. To promote efficient fermentation in paddy rice silage, LAB should be added during the fermentation process. Some species of LAB used as silage additives, such as Lactobacillus plantarum, L. buchneri, L. acidophilus, L. brevis, L. rhamnosus,
Pediococcus acidilactici, P. pentosaceus, and Enterococcus faecium, have proven effectiveness (McDonald et al., 1991; Yunus et al., 2000). Some in vitro differences in available carbohydrates, optimal growth pH and temperature, are observed among different LAB strains, even within the same species and subspecies (Tohno et al., 2012a). However, strain-dependent effects on fermentation quality of silage are not well understood. In our previous study (Kobayashi et al., 2010) utilizing a L. plantarum strain, which has been used in the preparation of forage paddy rice in Japan, butyric acid fermentation caused by clostridia was observed in conditions such as lower storage temperature, lower available carbohydrates, and higher moisture content.