1), and ultimately to the Gulf of Mexico The Platte River waters

1), and ultimately to the Gulf of Mexico. The Platte River watershed today is largely agricultural, with livestock production and corn dominating land-use in this semi-arid

part of the U.S. Because of its headwaters in the Rocky Mountains, river flow is largely governed by high-altitude spring snowmelt. Prior to European settlement, the Platte was a wide, shallow, anabranching river with sparse vegetation (Johnson, 1994). As in many rivers in semi-arid environments, thousands of diversion canals were constructed in the 1900s to irrigate farmland, and several large dams were built in its upper reaches. The result was large evaporative loss of water from the system and tightly regulated flows so that today, the Platte often carries as little as 20% of its original, unregulated flow (Randle and Samad, 2003). buy Adriamycin The reduction in flow led to dramatic changes in river morphology, sediment transport, and vegetation. Various studies have documented conversion of the river from wide and braided with little to no vegetation in the channel, to a much narrower, anabranching or locally meandering

river (Eschner et al., 1983, Fotherby, 2008, Johnson, 1994, Johnson, 1997 and Kircher and Karlinger, 1983). Woodland expansion began in the channel around 1900. By the 1930s much of the channel’s riparian zone had been colonized by Populus (cottonwood) and Salix (willow) species, both fast-growing woody plants ( Johnson, 1994). By the 1960s, a new equilibrium appeared to have been reached between woodland, lightly vegetated Metformin research buy areas and unvegetated areas in the channel ( Johnson, 1997 and Johnson, 1998). In 2002, non-native Phragmites first appeared in the river and

rapidly spread. It colonized riparian areas that had been inhabited by Salix and other species as well as unvegetated parts of the riverbed that were newly exposed by record-low river flows. By 2010 it became one of the most abundant types of vegetation in over 500 km of the river’s riparian area tuclazepam ( R. Walters, pers. comm., 2010). Phragmites is a non-native grass introduced from Eurasia that has invaded wetlands across North America ( Kettenring et al., 2012). It is considered invasive because of its prolific growth and reproduction and unique physiology: it is able to quickly outcompete resident native vegetation – including the native Phragmites subspecies americanus – in many habitats ( Kettenring et al., 2012, Kettenring and Mock, 2012 and Mozdzer et al., 2013). Previous studies conducted in North America have documented the impact of non-native Phragmites on nutrients other than silica, particularly nitrogen cycling ( Meyerson et al., 1999 and Windham and Meyerson, 2013). Study sites were located along a 65 km stretch of the Platte River in Nebraska between Kearney and Grand Island (Fig. 2).

, 2010, Karim and Wai, 1999 and Sankat and Castaigne, 2004) Acco

, 2010, Karim and Wai, 1999 and Sankat and Castaigne, 2004). According to Moura, Berbari, Germer, Almeida, & Fefim (2007), the shelf life of a food is defined by the time for which the product, stored under determined temperature conditions, presents alterations considered, up to a certain point, acceptable by the manufacturer, consumer and current food legislation. Many products show prolonged shelf lives, making their experimental determination difficult. However, the

existence of accelerated shelf life tests represents an alternative, and consists of storing the product to be studied under defined and controlled environmental conditions, so as to accelerate the rates of transformation (García-García, López-López, & Garrido-Fernández, 2008). One way of evaluating the shelf life of a food is by establishing a quality index. For this purpose, the main quality parameters should be considered, as also the degree selleck screening library of deterioration necessary to establish the end of the shelf life (Sanjuán, Bom, Clemente, & Mulet, 2004). The shelf life depends on extrinsic factors such as processing, packaging properties, temperature and relative humidity of the environmental air, luminosity buy LBH589 and headspace conditions, as well as intrinsic factors of the food such as acidity, available oxygen, additives, level of microbial contamination, redox

potential and water activity (Escobedo-Avellaneda, Velazquez, Torres, & Welti-Chanes, NADPH-cytochrome-c2 reductase 2012). Some of the main parameters considered in predicting shelf life are colour, ascorbic acid content, moisture content and pH value (Arlindo et al., 2007, Galdino et al., 2003 and Gomes et al., 2004). Thus the objective of the present study was to evaluate the shelf life of powdered guavira pulp produced by a foam mat process, employing accelerated tests as a function of the ascorbic acid content. Guavira fruits were acquired in the town

of Bela Vista, MS, Brazil (Latitude −22° 06′ 32” and Longitude −56° 31′ 16”) and transported to the Food Technology Laboratory of the Faculty of Engineering/UFGD, Brazil. The fruits were selected according to their degree of ripeness and physical integrity, washed and sanitized with 0.66% sodium dichloroisocyanurate dehydrate (Sumaveg). After sanitization the fruits were immersed in water at 70 °C for 5 min, drained, manually crushed and the pulp separated from the seeds and skin. The pulp was then packaged in rigid polypropylene containers and stored at −22 °C until use. Guavira foam was produced by mixing 100 g pulp with 1% citric pectin, 2% Emustab (product based on distilled monoglycerides, sorbitan monostearate and polysorbate 60) and 1% Super Liga neutral (product based on sucrose, carboxymethylcellulose and guar gum) and agitated at 1,050 rpm for 20 min in a mixer (Black & Decker Power Pro) at room temperature.

The consumption levels and the consumer’s weights were obtained f

The consumption levels and the consumer’s weights were obtained from several sources; “The national Findiet 2007 Survey”, “The

Diet of Finnish Preschoolers” and “Finnish Nutrition Recommendations 2005” (KTL-National Public Health Institute, 2008a, KTL-National Public Health Institute, 2008b and National Nutrition Council of Finland, 2005). CH5424802 All the assessments and consumption data involved only the people who use these rice products. The ICP-MS-method for the determination of elements (lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, manganese, arsenic and selenium) has been in use in Evira for several years. It has been validated and has a flexible scope accredited status. Several independent exercises (including one done for arsenic in rice

flour during this study) have demonstrated Ibrutinib research buy its applicability for other matrices as well. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for arsenic are 0.005 mg/kg and 0.010 mg/kg, respectively. The method uncertainty for arsenic was 18%, repeatability was 13% and reproducibility was 11%. We validated and accredited the arsenic speciation method for rice. The limit of quantification and the limit of detection for inorganic arsenic were 0.06 mg/kg and 0.03 mg/kg, respectively and the overall uncertainty of the method was 25%. The repeatability, reproducibility and trueness of the method for inorganic arsenic are summarised in Table 1. These figures reveal that the method is highly repeatable (CV 11% at the level of 0.08 – 0.11 mg/kg) and reproducibility is also good (on average CV 8%). The method trueness was determined using the test material IMEP-107, a material used in one interlaboratory comparison. No certified reference

materials are available for inorganic arsenic species of rice. The trueness of the method is very good if compared to the results achieved in interlaboratory comparison. Examples of a sample chromatogram, a standard chromatogram and a blank chromatogram are in Fig. 1. The total arsenic content of long grain rice samples analysed in this study varied from 0.11 to 0.65 mg/kg (n = 8) and the average amount Sclareol of total arsenic in long grain rice samples was 0.25 mg/kg ( Table 2). The average amount of inorganic arsenic was 0.16 mg/kg, ranging from 0.09 to 0.28 mg/kg. The relative value of the total arsenic in its inorganic forms has varied from 34 to 110%, the average being 74%. AB and MMA were not detected in any of the long grain rice samples. The arsenic species detected in the rice samples were DMA, As(III) and As(V). Both Pearson and Spearman correlation tests demonstrated a significant correlation between total and inorganic arsenic levels in long grain rice at the confidence level 95% (Pearson correlation p = 0.016, Spearman correlation p = 0.043). The total arsenic content of rice based baby food products was 0.

Ideally, a clear understanding of the quantitative linkages betwe

Ideally, a clear understanding of the quantitative linkages between exposure, dose, and biomarker levels will exist for any biomarker that is used in an epidemiological study. Considering Selleck mTOR inhibitor the invasive nature of target tissue sampling, most biomarker-based epidemiological

studies utilize samples of blood, urine, hair, or other easily-accessible matrices. Elucidating quantitative relationships between biomarker measurements from these matrices and exposure/dose levels requires an understanding of chemical absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME); these processes are frequently described using pharmacokinetic (PK) models, or physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. Prior to the use of biomarkers in an epidemiological study, a solid understanding of chemical ADME should exist, as well as the intrinsic (e.g., genetics, life-stage, pregnancy, gender) and extrinsic (e.g., diet, medication, medical conditions) factors that are likely to affect ADME. Furthermore, for short-lived biomarkers, it is important to know specific timing details (e.g., time of day, time since last meal for those chemicals associated with dietary exposure, time since last urine void) in relation to sample collection. Ideally, the

relationships between I-BET-762 chemical structure biomarker concentration and exposure/dose levels, and the effects of intrinsic, extrinsic, and timing factors on these relationships, will be thoroughly evaluated before the biomarker is used in an epidemiological study. Critical information that is needed to properly interpret the biomarker (with respect to exposure/dose) should then be collected and carefully evaluated as part of the study. The costs and benefits of each biomarker of exposure should be carefully examined and interpreted as part of any epidemiological evaluation. Interleukin-3 receptor It is important to note that matrix selection is an integral component of exposure and/or epidemiology research, and multiple

factors must be considered including measurement capability, contamination issues, and target analyte association with exposure or health outcome. BEES-C addresses each of these issues separately. Bisphenol A (BPA) is measured in urine in the free form (parent), as sulfate- or glucoronide-bound conjugates, or as a combination (total BPA) of the free and conjugated forms (Harthé et al., 2012, LaKind et al., 2012a, Völkel et al., 2008 and Ye et al., 2005). Several recent studies have examined endocrine-related health outcomes associated with BPA exposure. The most biologically-relevant biomarker is the free (parent) BPA, because only parent BPA is considered active in terms of estrogenicity (EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency), 2013 and WHO (World Health Organization), 2011).

3) These results indicate that qualitative and quantitative

3). These results indicate that qualitative and quantitative ABT-199 solubility dmso metabolic changes corresponding to polysaccharides and protein/amide regions I and II were important for discrimination of cultivation ages and cultivars. Therefore, the overall change in polysaccharides and proteins might play a significant role in discriminating between the cultivars and cultivation ages of ginseng. Many previous studies regarding IR peak assignment and the chemical composition of ginseng have been reported. The major metabolites of Korean ginseng (P. ginseng) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) are glutamine, arginine, sucrose, malate, and myo-inositol [27]. Thus, glucose,

fumarate, and various amino acids could serve as biomarkers for quality assurance in ginseng [27]. Spectroscopic techniques yield spectra that present key bands characteristic of individual components; these data provide information about the chemical composition of the sample, including both primary and secondary metabolites [43] and [44]. Sugars, including cellulosic, hemicellulosic, and pectic polysaccharides of cell walls and soluble sugar compounds, give a complex fingerprint due to their characteristic Selleckchem Raf inhibitor bands in the 900–1,200 cm−1 region of the infrared spectrum [45], [46] and [47]. Cellular proteins and amino acids also give

characteristic peaks of 1,750–1,600 cm−1, Cyclooxygenase (COX) 1,600–1,500 cm−1, and 1,350–1,200 cm−1, which are assigned the designations amide

I, amide II, and amide III, respectively [44], [48], [49], [50] and [51]. Previously, we reported that strawberry cultivars could be discriminated from leaf samples based on FT-IR spectral differences at the 1,650–1,700 cm−1 and 950–1,050 cm−1 regions [19]. Edwards et al  [32] reported that Chinese ginseng specimens with different countries of origin could be discriminated by the presence of characteristic bands near 980 cm−1 and 1,600 cm−1 in FT-Raman spectra. Not only primary metabolites but also secondary metabolites are important for characterization of ginseng roots. Phenol compounds give a complex fingerprint due to their characteristic bands in the 1,260–1,180 cm−1 range [44]. Chemical compositions of ginseng can be altered depending on various environmental and biological factors. Ginsenoside contents vary depending on the plant part and age of ginseng [41] and [42]. The content of polyacetylenes decreases with increasing root size [52]. Calcium oxalate and fatty acids in ginseng root also can vary depending on the cultivation area or method [33]. It has been also shown that quantitative changes in aromatic compounds can be used to discriminate ginseng roots with different ages [28]. In the case of the olive tree, secondary metabolites in leaves play a significant role in cultivar discrimination by multivariate analysis [53].

The Fr mortality increased significantly post-coppice While Fr m

The Fr mortality increased significantly post-coppice. While Fr mortality was much lower than Fr productivity in 2011 (pre-coppice), it exceeded Fr productivity in 2012 (post-coppice). In both genotypes the average Fr biomass and necromass significantly declined with increasing soil depth (Fig. 4). Using MANOVA, was shown that all soil depths biomass of Fr in the first year of the second year (2012; post-coppice) XAV-939 cell line did not statistically differ from the second year of the first rotation (2011; pre-coppice). For

genotype Koster, however, Fr biomass in the upper soil layer increased in 2012 (post-coppice) as compared to 2011 (pre-coppice; Fig. 4) when the data was partitioned by depth. For genotype Skado, Fr biomass was higher in the former cropland than in the former pasture (Table

2). No genotypic differences in Fr biomass were detected Ipilimumab datasheet at any soil depth. The depth was a statistically significant factor in the MANOVA model. The highest Fr biomass was detected in the upper 15 cm. On average, Fr biomass in the upper 15 cm accounted for 63.6 ± 16.4 g DM m−2. The Fr biomass in the upper 15 cm of the soil represented 44.3% and 50.1% of the total Fr in the 0–60 cm profile of genotypes Skado and Koster, respectively. In the second year of the first rotation (2011; pre-coppice), Wr biomass, mostly from grasses, was significantly higher than Fr of poplar in the upper 45 cm of the root profile. Overall, in 2011 the Wr showed a strong vertical distribution with a significant concentration in the upper 30 cm, while in 2012 (post-coppice) the Wr were more evenly distributed over the soil profile than the Fr. For trees of the same BA, no significant differences in Cr biomass were detected, neither between genotypes nor between previous land-use types. Consequently one single allometric equation was established at each sampling campaign to scale-up Cr biomass of the two genotypes across both previous land-use types using the BA frequency distribution (Fig. 5). It was, however, not possible to establish an allometric equation for Mr (Fig. 5). The up-scaled standing

belowground woody biomass after both rotations significantly differed between both genotypes (Table 3). After the first rotation (pre-coppice), the Cr biomass was already higher in Skado (145.9 g DM m−2) many than in Koster (95.3 g DM m−2). After coppice, the Cr biomass increased by 28% and by 63% to 187 g DM m−2 and 155 g DM m−2 for Skado and Koster, respectively Table 3. The C concentration of the roots increased with root diameter class (Fr, Mr and Cr, Table 4). The C concentration was lowest (36% of C) in the Fr without significant differences between necromass and biomass. There were no significant genotypic differences in root C concentration. After the first rotation, most of the C was stored in the Cr, with 53.5 g C m−2, followed by the Fr 40.1 g C m−2 and Mr 35.3 g C m−2.

, 2008 and Morikawa et al , 2012) Spatial relations among the ga

, 2008 and Morikawa et al., 2012). Spatial relations among the gas-producing enzymes and their receptor systems are

certainly an important factor to take into account. Another Selumetinib nmr important factor is the tissue concentrations of relevant gases. Morikawa et al. further demonstrated the potential for interactions of O2, CO, H2S by measuring endogenous CO and H2S concentrations of the brain exposed varied O2 concentrations. While hypoxia causes a decrease in CO concentrations and an increase in H2S, HO-2-null mice do not exhibit such an O2-dependent alteration of CO and H2S. Olson et al. (2006) postulated an interesting hypothesis that H2S catabolism serves as an intrinsic O2 sensor based on their results that H2S is inversely related with O2 in the trout gill chemoreceptors and pulmonary arteries of some mammalian species (Olson and Whitfield, 2010). Olson suggests that the relation of H2S and O2 can be analogous to the yin and yang and that the amount of H2S itself is a universal O2 sensor. Not only the production but also degradation of H2S determines

the effective Dinaciclib concentration of this gas. Regarding H2S catabolism, sulfide-quinone reductases (SQR), the disulfide oxidoreductase flavoprotein superfamily, has gained much attention as it contributes to H2S oxidation by phototrophic bacteria wherein H2S donates electrons to the respiratory chain (Griesbeck et al., 2000). Whether or not SQR exists and/or plays roles in H2S metabolism in the mammalian CNS is currently controversial (Ackermann et al., 2011, Lagoutte et al., 2010 and Linden et al., 2011). The oxidation of H2S on the mitochondrial respiratory chain

adds complexity in the O2–H2S signaling (Bouillaud and Blachier, 2011) and deserves further investigation. What might be the feasible approaches to investigate such complexity and Adenosine triphosphate polymodal nature of gas interactions? Here we consider some of the governing factors controlling local gas amounts and actions; these include: (i) substrate and/or cofactor availability; (ii) enzyme control resulting from allosteric control and covalent modification; (iii) spatial distribution of enzyme expression in the tissue; and (iv) temporal regulation of gas generation. One approach is imaging mass spectrometry combined with quantitative metabolomics which satisfy several criteria as it can provide quantitative dynamics of many metabolites simultaneously with spatio-temporal resolution. Hattori et al. (2010) combined two types of mass spectrometry (MS); matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI)/MS and capillary-electrophoresis/electrospray ionization (CE/ESI)/MS. Unlike conventional spectroscopic techniques with which chemical profiles are obtained from one selected volume at a time, MALDI/MS has strengths in visualizing multiple metabolites in discrete areas with a single laser ablation (Harada et al., 2009, Kubo et al., 2011 and Stoeckli et al., 2001) (Fig. 4A). However, it still requires further efforts to be supported for quantification.

, 2014) In the NEUTRINO phase III trial of treatment-naive patie

, 2014). In the NEUTRINO phase III trial of treatment-naive patients, 12 weeks of triple combination therapy with sofosbuvir (400 mg) once daily resulted in SVR rates of 89% in patients with HCV genotype 1 (92% for subtype 1a and 82% for subtype 1b), and 96% in patients with genotype 4 (Lawitz et al., 2013). Moreover, in the FISSION trial of HCV-2/3 treatment-naive patients receiving sofosbuvir/RBV

for 12 weeks, 95% of patients with genotype 2 and 56% of patients with genotype 3 achieved an SVR (Lawitz et al., 2013). In addition, most DAA agents are characterised by a low genetic barrier to the development of resistance, except sofosbuvir, which selleck kinase inhibitor showed a very high resistance barrier. This is the reason most current DAA-based therapies under evaluation must be co-administered with either PEG-IFN-alpha and ribavirin or different compounds belonging to different DAA classes (Poveda et al., 2014). Pycnogenol® (PYC; trademark

of Horphag Research, Geneva, Switzerland) is a French maritime pine extract produced from the outer bark of Pinus pinaster ssp. atlantica, and is generally considered safe for human use ( American Botanical Council, 2010). The main PYC constituents are procyanidins (68.4%), taxifolin (21.87%), ferulic acid (3.70%), catechin (2.53%), and caffeic acid (3.51%) ( Lee et al., 2010). PYC has been reported to have Enzalutamide datasheet antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and to reduce cardiovascular risk factors associated with type 2

diabetes ( Maimoona et al., 2011 and Zibadi et al., 2008). A recent report suggests that PYC can inhibit encephalomyocarditis virus replication in the mouse heart by suppressing expression of proinflammatory PTK6 cytokines, and genes related to cardiac remodelling and mast cells ( Matsumori et al., 2007). PYC has also been reported to inhibit binding of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 to host cells, and to cause other significant changes, including increased expression of manganese superoxide dismutase ( Feng et al., 2008). HCV gene expression elevates reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels via calcium signalling. In addition, HCV Core, NS3, and NS5A proteins have all been shown to induce oxidative stress (Choi et al., 2004). The reported link between HCV and oxidative stress makes this pathway a promising anti-HCV therapeutic strategy. To date, however, the effect of PYC on HCV infection has not been investigated. This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of Pycnogenol® on HCV replication in vitro and in vivo. Genotype 1b HCV subgenomic replicon cell lines, R6FLR-N (R6, genotype 1b, strain N) (Watanabe et al., 2006), FLR3-1 (genotype 1b, Con-1) (Sakamoto et al., 2005) and Rep JFH Luc3-13 genotype 2a (Takano et al.

Spatial span in Experiment 2 was only significantly


Spatial span in Experiment 2 was only significantly

reduced when memoranda were presented to the temporal hemifield and participants were abducted 40o during the maintenance and retrieval stages. In contrast, there was no disruption of spatial span at all for temporally presented stimuli when participants were abducted 40° only during retrieval. On this basis we conclude the disruptive effect of eye-abduction observed in Experiment 2 is specific MK-2206 ic50 to the maintenance of memoranda in spatial working memory, i.e., participants were unable to effectively rehearse directly-indicated spatial locations when eye-movements to the hemifield where the locations were presented were rendered physically impossible. The aim of the selleck screening library present study was to establish the extent

of oculomotor involvement during the encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of visual and spatial memoranda in working memory. This was accomplished across three experiments in which we used an abducted-eye paradigm to restrict participants’ ability to engage in oculomotor preparation at different stages of spatial and visual memory tasks. In all three experiments it was predicted that if performance was critically dependent on the eye-movement system, then a reduction is span should only occur when memoranda were presented in the temporal hemifield of the 40° eye-abducted condition. This is because this was the only old condition in which it was physically impossible for participants to plan or execute saccadic eye-movements to spatial locations in the temporal hemifield. In contrast no significant reduction in span was expected in the Temporal 20° Abducted condition, as in this condition participants were still able to plan saccades to spatial locations presented within the temporal hemifield. In Experiment 1 eye-abduction was applied only during the encoding of memoranda in visual and spatial memory. Spatial span was significantly reduced in the Temporal 40° Abducted condition, which is consistent with oculomotor involvement during spatial encoding. However, there was also a trend for lower span in the

Temporal 20° Abducted condition. Although this trend was not significant, we feel it is evident enough in the data to require us to be more guarded in our interpretation of Experiment 1. If there is oculomotor involvement during the maintenance of spatial locations in working memory (as demonstrated in Experiment 2), it can be expected that participants would first need to encode the locations as the goal of potential eye-movements. The reduction in Corsi span in the Temporal 40° Abducted condition in Experiment 1 is fully consistent with this. However, we acknowledge that encoding during the Corsi Blocks task will also engage nonspatial executive processes (Berch et al., 1998, Parmentier et al., 2005, Pearson, 2007 and Rudkin et al.

These trends are somewhat contrary to the strong downstream dilut

These trends are somewhat contrary to the strong downstream dilution patterns observed in other contaminant studies on semi-arid systems (e.g. Marcus, 1987, Marron, 1989, Reneau et al., 2004 and Taylor and Hudson-Edwards, 2008) in that (i) the three trace metals exhibit different spatial trends, indicating that

their dispersal is affected by differing factors, and (ii) where the downstream trend exists for Cu, it is very abrupt. Graf (1990) also demonstrated that the dispersal and storage of sediment-associated 230Th as a result of a tailings dam collapse did not possess these characteristic downstream dilution trends. Rather, concentrations were influenced strongly by localised NVP-BGJ398 ic50 geomorphic controls. Graf et al.’s (1991) study of contaminant dispersal was also not confounded by simultaneous flooding from tributaries, which may have played Selleckchem PFI-2 a role in the downstream dispersal of metals within the Saga and Inca creeks

(see below). The downstream channel sediment-metal dispersal patterns show fluctuating concentrations within an overall distance-decay trend. As found by Graf (1990), these variations could be attributed to a range of factors. Firstly, uncontaminated, minor tributaries are ubiquitous along the Saga and Inca creek system, contributing clean sediment to the trunk steam, which have the potential to dilute the concentrations of metals/metalloids in the main channel (e.g. Marcus,

1987, Miller, 1997 and Taylor and Kesterton, 2002). “Clean” sediment could also have been sourced from erosion of channel banks during flooding (Dennis et al., 2003 and Middelkoop, 2000), and also from frequent cattle movement and grazing. The catchment’s on-line Wire Yard Dam and One Mile Dam (Fig. 3) appears to have initiated the deposition of fine-grained suspended sediment, influencing channel sediment-metal Methane monooxygenase concentrations. Floodplain environments tend to be less dynamic and operate largely as sinks, with sediment-associated metals accreting vertically overtime (Ciszewski, 2003, Reneau et al., 2004 and Walling and Owens, 2003), providing reliable archive sources of alluvial contaminants. Analysis of Cu concentration across floodplain surfaces (0–2 cm; Fig. 5) showed that the most elevated levels of metal in sediments, excluding the channel, are located predominantly at ∼50 m from the channel bank (the most proximal distance to the channel sampled). Increased metal concentrations adjacent to channel banks are found commonly on contaminated floodplains (Graf et al., 1991, Macklin, 1996, Marron, 1989, Middelkoop, 2000 and Miller et al., 1999). This pattern of sediment-metal accumulation arises from a combination of higher stream power, greater frequency of overbank events in the areas closest to the channel (Nicholas and Walling, 1997), and repeated deposition of contaminated sediments over time.