[18] reported that BALB/c mice previously sensitized lost weight

[18] reported that BALB/c mice previously sensitized lost weight after challenging with OVA, which remained until the end of the experiment. In normal conditions, the number of mast cells in the intestine is relatively constant, but hyperplasia can be observed during inflammatory reactions or during stages of remodeling/repair of inflammatory

disorders [19]. As a result of the food enteropathy developed upon administration of OVA, we observed increased number of mast cells in the small intestine of PC group. However, no alterations were observed in the mast cell population from the Bov group. RG7112 order Bacterial products or cell components may induce metaplasia, proliferation and hypersecretion of goblet cells [20]. In this study, animals treated with OVA showed reduced number of goblet cells in the small intestine, and a reduction in the secretion of acidic and neutral mucins. In contrast, the administration of bovicin HC5 did not alter the total number or the pattern of goblet cell secretion. The mucus protects the intestinal wall by limiting the absorption of antigens, and therefore, the hypersecretion of mucopolysaccharides was expected at the PC group, as a characteristic of allergic inflammation

and as a result of increased IL-13 expression [21]; therefore, the reduction in the number of cells responsible for mucus secretion observed in PC group may not be related to the reduction in the secretion process per se, but BYL719 molecular weight to the limited count fields resulting from the destruction of the villi observed in PC group. Similar to goblet cells, Paneth cells also play an important role in host intestinal defense mechanisms, contributing to the

maintenance of the gastrointestinal HSP90 barrier by secreting antimicrobial peptides and other compounds in response to bacteria and bacterial antigens [22, 23]. The presence of antigens in the gastrointestinal tract also influence the expression and activity of key proteins involved in the regulation of cell proliferation [24]. Hypertrophy of Paneth cells and increased check details mitotic activity were observed in Bov and PC groups, indicating that despite the loss of villi architecture, secretion of antimicrobial compounds and tissue repair systems remained active, probably as a response to the injuries caused by bovicin HC5 and OVA in the small intestine. Our results indicate that the effects of bovicin HC5 and ovalbumin administration are more pronounced in the intestine, which can explain the significant reduction in spleen cellularity observed in Bov and PC groups: immune cells probably migrated from the spleen to the intestine, where the main effects were observed. OVA administration modulated the gut mucosal immunity in BALB/c mice towards significant TH2-polarized response, increasing the relative expression of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 mRNA. Goya et al.[25] also observed increased mRNA levels of the TH2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, as well as a decrease of INF-γ expression in the lungs of OVA-treated mice.

Methods Study design and setting This was a five year descriptive

Methods Study design and setting This was a five year descriptive prospective study of animal related injury patients that presented

to the Accident and Emergency of Bugando Medical Centre (BMC) between September 2007 and August 2011. Bugando Medical Centre (BMC) is a referral, consultant and teaching hospital for the Catholic University of Health and Allied Sciences-Bugando (CUHAS-Bugando) and other paramedics and it is located in Mwanza city in the northwestern part of the United Republic of Tanzania. It is situated along the shore of Lake Victoria and has 1000 beds. BMC is one of the four largest referral hospitals in the country and serves as a referral centre for tertiary specialist care for a catchment CBL0137 in vitro population of approximately 13 million people from neighboring. There is no trauma centre or established advanced pre-hospital care in Mwanza

city as a result all trauma patients are referred to BMC for expertise management. Study subjects The subjects of this study included all patients of all age group and gender that presented to BMC with animal related injuries during the study period. Patients who failed to give proper information and those who had no relative to consent for the study were excluded from the study. Recruitment of patients to participate in the study was done at the A & E department. Patients were screened for inclusion criteria and those who met the inclusion criteria were, after informed consent to participate in the study, consecutively enrolled into the study. Patients with severe injuries were first resuscitated in the A&E department according to Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS). From Apoptosis inhibitor the A & E department, patients were taken into the GW786034 clinical trial surgical wards or the intensive care unit (ICU) from where necessary investigations were completed and further treatment was Org 27569 instituted. Patients with open wounds and those with evidence of abdominal visceral injuries were taken to theatre for surgical intervention. Severe head injury patients with evident of space occupying lesions were also taken to theatre for possible craniotomy or burr holes and evacuation of haematoma. The severity of injury was determined

using the Kampala trauma score II (KTS II) [19]. Severe injury consisted of a KTS II ≤ 6, moderate injury 7-8, and mild injury 9-10. Patients with head injuries were classified according to Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) into: severe (GCS 3-8), moderate (GCS 9-12) and mild (GCS 13-15). An initial systolic blood pressure (SBP) on each patient was also recorded on admission. Routine investigations including hematological (hemoglobin, blood grouping & cross-matching), biochemical (serum creatinine & serum electrolytes) and radiological (x-rays of the chest & abdomen, abdominal ultrasound and CT scan) were performed on admission. Depending on the type of injury, the patients were treated either conservatively or by surgery. All patients were followed up till discharged or death.



MAPK inhibitor maximum misorientation angle ψ of the crystal lattice, which characterizes the degree of structure fragmentation, was found from azimuthal tailing of diffraction reflections compared to single-crystalline samples. The sizes of fragments were measured by electron microscopy (microscope PREM-200, Moscow, USSR). Results and discussion γ-α-γ transformations X-ray studies of alloy 1 have shown that all the austenitic reflections present in the single-crystalline samples are washed out in the azimuthal direction after reverse α-γ transformation. On the pole figure (homostereographic projection), the centers of all initial and reversed austenitic reflections coincided at the region of measurement accuracy (1° to 2°). Azimuthal tailing of reflections monotonously increased with the increase of the quantity of transformation cycles (Figure  1A,B,C,D). At the same time, the angle ψ of martensite was always less than that of Sepantronium molecular weight austenite (Figure  2A,B). Debye lines on the Ilomastat mw X-ray pattern filled up in the azimuthal direction. Hence, the rotational X-ray pattern of single-crystalline samples after 35 to 50 γ-α-γ transformations was the same as that of a textured polycrystalline sample. After 80 to 120 γ-α-γ cycles, the diffraction pattern displays practically continuous lines of austenite. It indicates

a practically full recrystallization of austenite and a transformation of the initial single crystalline into a polycrystalline sample. Different azimuthal tailing of the γ and α phase reflections qualify the different degrees of crystal lattice fragmentation of the austenite and the martensite phase, respectively. Figure 1 X-ray patterns of alloy 1 single crystal in the austenitic

state (f.c.c.), FeK α radiation. Initial state (A) and after 1 (B), 10 (C), and 80 (D) γ-α-γ transformations. Figure 2 Misorientation angle ψ of austenite (1) and martensite (2) in alloys 1 (A) and 2 (B). N, number of thermocycles. Electron microscopic investigation has shown that in the process of thermocycling, subgrain boundaries were created in reversed austenite. These boundaries were formed by dislocations generated by repeated γ-α and α-γ transformations. Tolmetin At a certain stage, subgrain boundaries form the observed fragments in the initial austenite grains. After 10 to 20 cycles, the decomposition of the reflections into three to five components was observed (Figure  1B) parallel with the progress of azimuthal tailing of reflections on the electron diffraction pattern that provide evidence for the formation of additional subgrain boundaries at this stage. In reversed austenite, the fragment size decreased with increasing number of transformation cycles. After 30 cycles, the major fraction of fragments was in the range 0.2 to 0.8 μm. After 80 to 100 cycles, the size of fragments reached the nanoscale level (about 100 nm).

2000; Gaston 2003) Unfortunately, locally rare taxa are suscepti

2000; Gaston 2003). Unfortunately, locally rare taxa are susceptible to the same threats that affect all rare and endangered ecological communities. Although there is current legislation in the United States designed to protect rare plants within large jurisdictions (e.g. CESA 1970; ESA 1973; CEQA 2005), learn more most Elafibranor ic50 conservation efforts and development decisions happen at local and regional scales (Reid 1998; Brooks et al. 2006; Leppig and White 2006). In addition to the rare taxa identified by global, national, and state or provincial agencies, locally rare taxa are important for the preservation of species

diversity, and therefore require Ivacaftor concentration effective and recognizable conservation status. Pärtel et al. (2005) conclude that in the case of vascular plants, an analysis of multiple conservation characteristics, including restricted global and local distributions, would provide a powerful and objective tool for conservation planning. They further highlight that “biogeographic reasons” may play an important role in determining local

abundance of a species, and that the area of a species distribution is the most common characteristic associated with conservation need. Furthermore, White (2004) demonstrated that area of occupancy, when used with an optimal methodology, significantly reduces experimental error for the estimation of range size, especially for rare taxa. Thus, analysis of area of occupancy criteria is important for plant conservation efforts. Although Magney (2004) directly applied the Natural Heritage Network Element Ranking System’s (NatureServe

2006) Loperamide criteria for the sub-national assessment scale to a county jurisdiction (Ventura, California), there are no specific local rarity ranks or criteria presently in use to systematically categorize taxa at the county level. Furthermore, when the absence of a standardized summary system is coupled with a frequent lack of accurate distribution data, locally rare taxa are not well integrated into conservation planning efforts. Regrettably due to such vagueness, repeatable studies are difficult and germane regulations are often not effectively applied to locally rare taxa (Leppig and White 2006). Nevertheless, several programs have been developed using various methods in attempts to identify and protect locally rare plants (see CNPS 2010). The purpose of this research was to develop and outline a set of criteria for systematically categorizing and assigning conservation ranks to locally rare taxa. The aim was to address the current gap in the available methods for classifying biodiversity at local assessment scales (e.g., counties) in order to catalog locally rare organisms and give them conservation status.

2000; Alves et al 2004; Slippers et al 2004b; Phillips et al 2

2000; Alves et al. 2004; Slippers et al. 2004b; Phillips et al. 2005, 2008; Crous et al. 2006; Schoch et al. 2006; Phillips and Alves 2009). The asexual

morphs of Botryosphaeriaceae have been assigned to several coelomycete genera, including Aplosporella, Diplodia, Dothiorella, Fusicoccum, Lasiodiplodia, Macrophomina, Microdiplodia, Neofusicoccum, Neoscytalidium, Pseudofusicoccum Selleckchem KU55933 and Sphaeropsis (Crous and Palm 1999; Denman et al. 2000; Crous et al. 2004, 2006; Pavlic et al. 2004, 2008, 2009a, b; Phillips and Pennycook 2004; Slippers et al. 2004a; Phillips et al. 2005; Alves et al. 2006, 2008; Damm et al. 2007b; Lazzizera et al. 2008b) Denman et al. (2000) recognized only two of these, namely Diplodia and Fusicoccum. Recent studies on the taxonomy of Botryosphaeria have employed molecular methods to reveal selleckchem phylogenetic relationships among species (Jacobs and Rehner 1998) and to resolve species complexes (Smith et al. 2001; Phillips et al. 2002; Denman et al. 2003; PF 01367338 Alves et al. 2004; Slippers et al. 2004c; Phillips et al. 2005). Two major clades corresponding to species with Diplodia and Fusicoccum asexual morphs were revealed based on the phylogenies resulting from ITS

sequence analyses (Jacobs and Rehner 1998; Denman et al. 2000). Later studies including additional species and a larger suite of DNA-based markers supported this grouping (Zhou and Stanosz 2001; Alves et al. 2004; Slippers et al. 2004d). When Crous et al. (2004) described the species Saccharata proteae Denman & Crous (as Botryosphaeria proteae (Wakef.) Denman & Crous with Fusicoccum and Diplodia synanamorphs), this well supported grouping

was questioned, as it is morphologically and phylogenetically distinct from representatives of the Diplodia-like and Fusicoccum-like groups. Lasiodiplodia Ellis & Everh. has been treated as a distinct genus from Diplodia Fr. by many authors due to its distinct phylogeny (usually ITS or EF-1α) and morphology (striated or smooth conidia and presence or absence of pseudoparaphyses). Pavlic et al. (2004) employed morphological and phylogenetic data to separate Lasiodiplodia from Diplodia. Later, Phillips et al. (2005) broadened the concept Ureohydrolase by including Dothiorella within Botryosphaeria. Dichomera Cooke has been linked to Botryosphaeria species with Fusicoccum anamorphs by Barber et al. (2005). In a phylogenetic study based on 28S rDNA sequence data, Crous et al. (2006) recognised ten lineages within Botryosphaeriaceae corresponding to different genera. Subsequently, Damm et al. (2007b) added a further genus, Aplosporella, while Phillips et al. (2008) recognised five additional genera. Asexual genera for Botryosphaeriaceae were listed in Hyde et al.

P45 O’Sullivan, J P93 Ouellet, V P33, P159 Ouisse, L -H O107 O

C. O158, P155 Ostrozhenkova, E. P45 O’Sullivan, J. P93 Ouellet, V. P33, P159 Ouisse, L.-H. O107 Ousset, M. P44 O’Valle Ravassa, F. O185 Øyan, A. M. O181, P132 Oyasu, M. P221 Ozer, J. P45 Pagano, A. P192 Page, M. P2 Pagès, F. P176 Pakdaman, S. P202 Palermo, C. O96 Pallardy, M. O86 Palmqvist, R. P146, P149, P164 Pancre, V. O48, P194 Papadopoulou, A. O68 Paradowska, A. P18 Parent, L. P209 Pargger, M. P53 Park, D. P181 Park, H. P186 Park, K.-K.

P84, P154 Park, M. P155 selleck kinase inhibitor Park, R.-W. P197 Park, S. I. O171 Park, S.-Y. P198 Park, Y. P133 Parker, M. W. P66 Parkin, S. P157 Parteli, J. P91 Pasca di Magliano, M. P175 Pasupulati, S. P56 Patel, K. J. P124 Peled, M. O115 Peluffo, G. O145 Peña, C. P10, P99 Penault-Llorca, F. P214 Penfold, M. E. T. P202 Peng, S.-B. O178 Peng, S. O175 Pennesi, G. O146 Pépin, F. P33, P155 Peralta-Leal,

A. O185 Perbal, B. P159 Pereira, M. C. P26 Pereira, P. P171 Persano, L. O23 Pesce, S. P166 Pestell, R. G. O184 Peter, H. O173 Petri, M. P18 Pettersson, S. O109 Pettigrew, J. O118 Pfeffer, U. O146 Pienta, K. O171 Pierré, A. P69 Pietras, K. O39 Pietzsch, J. P96, find more P180 Piktel, D. O99 Pinault, É P182 Pines, M. O183 Pink, D. O170 Pinte, S. P161 Piot, O. P134 Piura, P. P121 Piwnica-Worms, D. P29 Placencio, V. P100 Platonova, S. O106, P62, P101 Plaza-Calonge, M. C. P30 Pobre, E. P206 Pocard, M. O66, P69 Poirier, A. O32 Poletti, A. P46 Pollard, J. W. O1, P104 Polyak, K. O33, O145 Pomeranz, M. P112 Pommerencke, T. P78 Ponath, E. O92 Ponzoni, M. O116 Popel, A. P207 Porcasi, R. P163 Porchet, N. P14 Porquet, N. O32 Port, E. O160 Porta, C. O46 Postovit, L.-M. O6 Potiron, L. O107 Pouniotis, D. P102 Poupon, M.-F. O66 Poupot, M. P88 Pouysségur, J. O7, O59 Pradelli, E. P199, P202 Prébois, C. P42 Erastin ic50 Prestegarden, L. O181 Prévost, G. P69 Prevot, S. O86 Prieto,

V. O108 Pringels, S. O87 Prior, J. L. P29 Pritchard, almost M. A. P106 Proust, F. P63 Psaila, B. P119 Puapairoj, A. P114 Pucci, S. O61, O163 Pucelle, M. O84 Pusceddu, I. O23 Pyonteck, S. P103 Pyronnet, S. O84 Qayum, N. O176 Qian, B. P104 Querleu, D. P88 Quinn, D. P190 Raab, S. O12 Radenkovic, S. P105 Rafii, A. P88 Rafii, D. O160 Rafii, S. P119 Raghavan, D. P185 Rahat, M. A. O136 Rahav, G. P5 Rajoria, S. O76 Rakshit, S. P175 Ramirez, A. P172 Ranga, R. P56 Räsänen, K. P48, P160 Rath-Wolfson, L. P169 Ratti, C. P163 Raz, A. O3 Rechavi, O. O5 Redjimi, N. O86 Reed, R. K. P83, P132 Rehemtulla, A. P56 Reichle, A. O123, P200 Reiniš, M. O44, P162 Reitkopf, S. O12 Reka, A. K. P128 Rennie, P. P195 Rescigno, M. O64 Ressler, S. O65 Ricci, J.-E. P199 Ricciardelli, C. O173, P106 Rice, L. P205 Rich, C. P1 Richard-Fiardo, P. P203 Richon, S. O66 Rimoldi, M. O46 Rinerio, V. G. O105 Rio, M.-C. O83 Riond, J. O50 Rique, H. P69 Riquet, W. O50 Rivella, S. P119 Roberg, K. O69 Robine, S. P65 Robinson, M. L.

0000), pathologic stage (P = 0 0000), VEGF-C expression (P = 0 00

0000), pathologic stage (P = 0.0000), VEGF-C expression (P = 0.0054) and Ki67%(P = 0.0001). A multivariate analysis of these individuals was performed using the Cox regression Model. ptLVD, pathologic stage, lymph-node metastasis and Ki67% were independent prognostic parameters

for overall survival (P = 0.028) (Table 2). Podoplanin positive ptLVD might play important roles in the lymphangiogenesis and progression of NSCLC. Patients with high podoplanin+ ptLVD have a poor prognosis. Table 2 Multivariate JQ-EZ-05 clinical trial analysis of various prognostic factors in patients with NSCLC   Univariate Multivariate Prognostic factor P value β P value Relative Risk (95%) CI) ptLVD (high/low) 0.0001 0.828 0.003 2.288 (1.182–4.428) Pathologic stage(I+II/III+IV) 0.0000 1.310 0.003 3.708 (1.581–8.694) Pathologic N stage (N0/N2–3) 0.0000 1.218 0.010 3.382 (1.344–8.511) LVI (-/+) 0.0002 0.714 0.052 2.041 (0.993–4.196) VEGF-C(-/+) 0.0054 -0.365 0.490 0.694 (0.246–1.958) Ki67% 0.0012 0.726 0.032 2.067 (1.026–4.161) (LVI: lymphatic

vessel invasion, ptLVD: peritumoral lymphatic vessel density, Ki67/%: Ki-67 index of the endothelium cells of the micro lymphatic vessels) Figure 5 Survival analysis of clinicopathological GSK1210151A parameters. Discussion There are many reports about tumor angiogenesis and poor prognosis in NSCLC. For example, Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM-1) has recently been reported to be implicated in cancer development and progression. The elevated CEACAM-1 expression and increased MVD, was an unfavorable prognosis in NSCLC [23]. It has also been reported that high CD34+ MVD and tumour vessel invasion are more Tangeritin closely related to poor survival than Selleck AZD0530 the other neoangiogenetic factors in stage

IB-IIA NSCLC [24]. In recent years, with the identification of lymphatic endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), VEGF-D and lymphatic endothelial markers including LYVE-1, VEGFR-3 and podoplanin, lymphangiogenesis has become one of the highlights in the field of metastasis in NSCLC. Active lymphangiogenesis is ongoing within sentinel lymph node (SLN) from NSCLC patients, even before metastasis. This lymphangiogenesis may be promoted by upregulation of VEGF121, which may in turn act in part through induction of VEGF-C [25]. Kadota [26] also showed that lymphangiogenesis, specifically Micro-LVD was independently associated with poor prognosis of NSCLC patients. However, these researches can not indicate which LVD status was associated with prognosis of NSCLC patients. What is more, a Meta analysis has been finished [27]. 17 centers provided data for 3200 patients, 2719 of which were included in the analysis. For microvessel density counts obtained by the Chalkley method, the HR for death per extra microvessel was 1.05 (95% CI 1.01–1.09, P = 0.03) when analyzed as a continuous variable. For microvessel density counts obtained by the all vessels method, the HR for death per ten extra microvessels was 1.03 (0.97–1.09, P = 0.

At this time of global need for sustainable fuels, the deployment

At this time of global need for sustainable fuels, the deployment of game-changing technologies is critical to economies and environments on a global scale. It is clear from this and other recent analyses focused on life cycles and energy balances (Stephens et al. 2010) that a very compelling case can be made for photosynthesis as a platform technology for renewable production of fuels. More specifically, an engineered cyanobacterial organism for direct continuous conversion of CO2 into

infrastructure-compatible, secreted fuel molecules surpasses the productivities of alternatives that rely on the growth of biomass for downstream conversion into product. Photon utilization assumptions The assumptions inherent in a calculation of overall efficiency of a photosynthetic process are based on areal insolation, capture, and conversion, and GANT61 clinical trial are analyzed relative to a sequentially accumulating loss of photons that are not gainfully selleck kinase inhibitor utilized for the production of product. When accounting for the ultimate contingent of photons that are converted, the loss at each process step is a percentage fraction of the total available from the previous step. The descriptions below follow the sequence of process conversion steps and reflect the

accumulating losses and resultant efficiencies illustrated in Fig. 2. Values described below are summarized in Table 3. PAR radiation fraction The analysis assumes that only the solar radiation reaching the ground is available for conversion and the cumulative loss is computed with Selleckchem Sepantronium respect to this boundary value. Although the average total solar radiation reaching the ground varies throughout the world, many we assume that the relative efficiency of each subsequent step in the conversion process is location-independent to a first-order approximation. The energy fraction of solar radiation reaching the ground

that lies in the PAR range does vary with location and time of day. Results obtained from NREL models (Gueymard 2005; Bird and Riordan 1984) indicate that the PAR radiation fraction ranges from about 47–50% in the southwest USA. For the calculations performed in this article, we use a value of 48.7% for PAR radiation fraction to remain consistent with Zhu et al. (2008), resulting in a loss of 51.3%. Culture growth In the direct process, once reactors are inoculated, cells must be grown up to high density before the production phase. Thereafter, the process is continuous for an extended period. Based on pilot experience, we assume an 8-week process time, 3 days of growth at doubling times ~3 h followed by 53 days of production with no biomass accumulation, before the reactors must be emptied and reinoculated. Direct production of a fungible product minimizes downstream processing. This results in a reactor availability loss of about 5%.

The diffraction peaks of the ZnO consist of three strong diffract

The diffraction peaks of the ZnO consist of three strong diffraction

peaks, which can be mainly indexed Vistusertib as the wurtzite phase of ZnO (JCPDS card no. 36–1451) in Figure 1a. Meanwhile, the diffraction peaks in Figure 1b can be indexed to the cubic structure of pure Ag2O (JCPDS card no. 76–1393), with no additional peak detected, indicating the pure phase of Ag2O products. For the composite sample, the diffraction peaks in Figure 1c can be ascribed to two sets of strong diffraction peaks (JCPDS card nos. 36–1451 and 76–1393), revealing that ZnO and Ag2O coexist in the composite. The relative intensity of diffraction peaks in Figure 1c shows that the content of Ag2O is much selleck chemical more than that of ZnO for its intense and sharp diffraction peaks. Figure 1 XRD patterns of the as-synthesized products obtained. (a) Pure ZnO, (b) pure Ag2O, and (c) ZnO-Ag2O composite. To investigate the surface compositions and chemical states

of the as-prepared ZnO-Ag2O (1:1) composite, XPS was carried out, and the results are shown in Figure 2. The full-scan spectrum in Figure 2a shows the presence of C, O, Zn, Ag, and O peaks, which confirmed the presence of these elements in the products. The carbon peak comes from the adventitious carbon on the surface of the sample. The Zn 2p consists of two peaks positioned at 1,020.9 and 1,044.2 eV for Zn 2p 3/2 and Zn 2p 1/2 (Figure 2b), which were observed in both ZnO-Ag2O composites and pure ZnO [18]. As Figure 2c shows, O 1s can be deconvoluted by three nearly Gaussian curves in the ZnO-Ag2O composite, indicating that there are three different O species in the sample. The lowest binding energy component of 529.5 eV is attributed to O2– ions surrounded by Ag atoms with their full complement of nearest-neighbor O2– ions [19]. The middle binding energy component is usually attributed to chemically adsorbed oxygen on the surface of the catalysts [20]. The highest component is attributed to O2– ions in ZnO [21]. However, O 1s only can be deconvoluted by two Acetophenone nearly Gaussian curves in pure ZnO. The binding

energy components of 530.5 and 531.7 eV are attributed to chemically adsorbed oxygen and O2– ions in ZnO, respectively. The peaks with binding energies of 367.8 and 373.8 eV correspond to Ag 3d 5/2 and Ag 3d 3/2, respectively, which is a characteristic of Ag+ in the Ag2O product in Figure 2d [21]. Consequently, the as-synthesized products could be determined as ZnO-Ag2O composites based on the results of XRD and XPS measurements. Figure 2 XPS spectra of the ZnO-Ag 2 O composites and pure ZnO. (a) Survey XPS spectrum, (b) Zn 2p, (c) O 1s, and (d) Ag 3d. In order to obtain the detailed information about the morphology of the synthesized Ag2O nanoparticles, SEM find more observation of flower-like ZnO and ZnO-Ag2O (1:1) composites was carried out, and the results are given in Figure 3.

Du YS, Wang B, Li T, Yu CB, Yan H: Effects of annealing procedure

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