It is therefore important to understand charge generation, trappi

It is therefore important to understand charge generation, trapping, and detrapping processes in the material. In the present paper, the characteristics of charge trapping and detrapping in low density polyethylene under dc electric field have been investigated

using the pulsed electroacoustic technique. It has been found that the charge decay shows very different characteristics for the sample with different periods of electric field application. To explain the results a simple trapping and detrapping model based on two trapping levels has been proposed. Qualitative analysis revealed the similar features to those observed experimentally.”
“Background: Articulation disorders in young children are due to defects occurring at a certain stage in sensory and motor development. Some children 3 Methyladenine with functional articulation disorders may also have sensory integration dysfunction (SID). We hypothesized that speech C59 cost therapy would be less efficacious in children with SID than in those without SID. Hence, the purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of speech therapy in two groups of children with functional articulation disorders: those

without and those with SID.\n\nMethod: A total of 30 young children with functional articulation disorders were divided into two groups, the no-SID group (15 children) and the SID group (15 children). The number of pronunciation mistakes was evaluated before and after speech therapy.\n\nResults: There were no statistically significant differences in age, sex, sibling order, education of parents, and pretest number of mistakes in pronunciation between the two groups (P > 0.05). The mean and standard deviation in the pre- and post-test number of mistakes in pronunciation were 10.5 +/- 3.2 and 3.3 +/-

3.3 in the no-SID group, and 10.1 +/- 2.9 and 6.9 +/- 3.5 in the SID group, respectively. Results showed great changes after speech therapy treatment (F = 70.393; P < 0.001) and interaction between the pre/post speech therapy treatment and groups (F = 11.119; P = 0.002).\n\nConclusions: Speech therapy can improve the articulation performance Selleckchem ZD1839 of children who have functional articulation disorders whether or not they have SID, but it results in significantly greater improvement in children without SID. SID may affect the treatment efficiency of speech therapy in young children with articulation disorders.”
“Background: Although, melasma is most prevalent among Asian young women, and also darkly pigmented individuals are particularly prone to developing post inflammatory hyperpigmentation, to the best of our knowledge, there are rare or no studies about the association of melasma and Post inflammatory hyperpigmentation.\n\nObjectives: The aim of this study was to investigate how likely is a melasma patient to developed post inflammatory hyperpigmentation when compared to patients with inflammatory acne lesions who do not have melasma.

The genes are expressed under the control of constitutive gpdA pr

The genes are expressed under the control of constitutive gpdA promoter and trpC terminator. Expression of ftmPS alone resulted in the formation of the expected cyclic dipeptide brevianamide F with a yield of up to 36.9 mg l(-1). Introducing the reverse C2-prenyltransferase gene cdpC2PT as well as the reverse C3-prenyltransferase gene cdpNPT into a ftmPS mutant yielded reversely C2- and C3-prenylated

derivatives, respectively. Coexpression of ftmPS with the reverse C3-prenyltransferase gene cdpC3PT resulted in the formation of N1-regularly, C2-, and C3-reversely prenylated derivatives. The prenyl transfer reactions catalyzed by CdpC2PT, CdpNPT, and CdpC3PT observed in this study correspond well to those detected with purified proteins. The yields of the detected prenylated Selleck Proteasome inhibitor products were found to be up to 12.2 mg l(-1). The results Crenolanib chemical structure presented in this study show the potential of synthetic biology for production of prenylated compounds.”
“Uveal melanoma is the most common primary cancer of the eye and often results in fatal metastasis. Here, we describe mutations occurring exclusively at codon 625 of the SF3B1 gene, encoding splicing factor 3B subunit 1, in low-grade uveal melanomas with good prognosis. Thus, uveal melanoma is among a small group of cancers associated with SF3B1 mutations, and these mutations denote a distinct molecular subset of uveal melanomas.”
“Background:

Infliximab (IFX) and adalimumab (ADA) are attractive treatment options in patients with inflammatory bowel Dinaciclib in vivo disease (IBD) also during pregnancy but there is still limited data on the benefit/risk profile of IFX and ADA during pregnancy.\n\nMethods: This observational study assessed pregnancy outcomes in 212 women with IBD under

antitumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) treatment at our IBD unit. Pregnancy outcomes in 42 pregnancies with direct exposure to anti-TNF treatment (35 IFX, 7 ADA) were compared with that in 23 pregnancies prior to IBD diagnosis, 78 pregnancies before start of IFX, 53 pregnancies with indirect exposure to IFX, and 56 matched pregnancies in healthy women.\n\nResults: Thirty-two of the 42 pregnancies ended in live births with a median gestational age of 38 weeks (interquartile range PORI 37-39). There were seven premature deliveries, six children had low birth weight, and there was one stillbirth. One boy weighed 1640 g delivered at week 33, died at age of 13 days because of necrotizing enterocolitis. A total of eight abortions (one patient wish) occurred in seven women. Trisomy 18 was diagnosed in one fetus of a mother with CD at age 37 under ADA treatment (40 mg weekly) and pregnancy was terminated. Pregnancy outcomes after direct exposure to anti-TNF treatment were not different from those in pregnancies before anti-TNF treatment or with indirect exposure to anti-TNF treatment but outcomes were worse than in pregnancies before IBD diagnosis.

Eleven (29%) of them had an incomplete form of the disease Coron

Eleven (29%) of them had an incomplete form of the disease. Coronary artery abnormalities were found in 10 (26%) children, insignificantly more often among those with incomplete KD. Each day of treatment delay increased the complication rate by almost 1.5 (OR 1.45, p = 0.009). Treatment initiated 10 days after the onset of the disease increased

this risk almost nine times (OR 8.99, p = 0.007). No significant differences in respect to age (p = 0.431), gender (p = 0.744) and laboratory test results were found between the groups with and without coronary complications. A complete regression of coronary artery involvement was seen in 7 children, and partial regression was seen in one child. One child died and another needed coronary artery bypass grafting. Conclusions: Coronary artery aneurysms developed at a similar rate in both complete and incomplete forms of KD and the only significant risk factor MAPK Inhibitor Library BIX 01294 in vivo was the timing of treatment initiation. In young children with

fever of unknown cause lasting longer than 5 days, echocardiography is warranted. Despite a tendency for coronary artery aneurysms to regress, late complications may occur and all children require long-term follow up in a cardiology clinic.”
“Aims: This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the effects of common polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene on the toxicity and clinical responses of irinotecan-based SBE-β-CD in vitro chemotherapy in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: The PubMed, CISCOM, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases were searched from their inception through November 1st, 2013 without language

restrictions. Meta-analysis was conducted with the use of the STATA 12.0 software. Crude odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Seven clinical cohort studies with a total of 815 CRC patients met the inclusion criteria. Two common polymorphisms (677 C bigger than T and 1298A bigger than C) in the MTHFR gene were assessed. Results: The results from our meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR genetic polymorphisms might significantly decrease the rate of grade 3/4 toxicity of irinotecan-based chemotherapy in CRC patients (OR=0.53, 95% CI: 0.32-0.89, p=0.015). Furthermore, we also demonstrated that MTHFR genetic polymorphisms strongly correlated with good clinical responses (complete response+partial response) to irinotecan-based chemotherapy in CRC patients (OR=1.47, 95% CI: 1.05-2.04, p=0.024). Conclusions: Our findings provide empirical evidence that MTHFR genetic polymorphisms may decrease the toxicity of irinotecan-based chemotherapy and increase the clinical benefits for CRC patients. Thus, MTHFR genetic polymorphisms may be screened to predict the clinical responses to irinotecan-based chemotherapy in CRC patients.

The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria((R)) a

The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria((R)) are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The development and review of the guidelines include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness

of imaging Ricolinostat cost and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.”
“Background: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, progressive lung disease that affects almost exclusively women and

is most often diagnosed before menopause. The main symptom of LAM is shortness of breath. LAM patients’ perceptions of how the disease impacts their lives is largely unknown, but such information could be useful to generate patient reported outcome measures for Selleckchem AG-120 use in drug trials (or other research studies) and to formulate interventions aimed at easing the burdens LAM imposes on patients. Objective: To capture patients’ perceptions of how LAM affects their lives. Methods: We used reflexive team analysis to analyze transcripts from semi-structured focus groups conducted with LAM patients at LAMposium 2013. We sought to determine what patients perceive as the primary symptoms of LAM and how the disease affects them in their daily lives. Results: The 37 participants described seven primary symptoms of LAM and

five common psychological experiences from living with the disease. Shortness of breath and low energy (or fatigue) dominated the symptomatic picture; cough, sensations in the chest, difficulty GSK1838705A molecular weight sleeping, gastrointestinal issues, and mild cognitive difficulties were less common. The common psychological experiences participants reported included frustration, worry, loss of identity, embarrassment, and in some participants, a healthy defiance against the disease. Conclusions: Patients perceive the physical symptoms from LAM to be intrusive and limiting. Women living with LAM are frustrated by their physical limitations, and they worry about what the future will be like if the disease progresses. Therapeutic interventions should take aim at improving these perceptions.”
“Myelin is essential for rapid saltatory conduction and is produced by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system and oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. In both cell types the transcription factor Sox10 is an essential component of the myelin-specific regulatory network. Here we identify Myrf as an oligodendrocyte-specific target of Sox10 and map a Sox10 responsive enhancer to an evolutionarily conserved element in intron 1 of the Myrf gene.

The development of melasma appears to be associated with increase

The development of melasma appears to be associated with increased levels of oestrogen, exposure to sunlight and a genetic predisposition. Several in vitro studies have partially clarified the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on melasma. However, oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression in melasma-affected skin has not been investigated to date, except for one case report on ER expression.\n\nObjective\n\nThe purpose of this study was to compare ER and PR expression between hyperpigmented areas and unaffected areas of facial skin in patients with melasma.\n\nMethods\n\nBiopsies were performed on skin lesions and adjacent-unaffected Birinapant mouse facial skin in 33 Korean

women with melasma. The sections were stained using haematoxylin and eosin, Fontana-Masson, and antibodies to NKI/beteb, ER alpha,

beta and PR.\n\nResults\n\nThe immunohistochemical expression of ER beta showed an increasing tendency in epidermal lesions without statistical significance. Expression of PR was significantly increased in the epidermal lesions compared with unaffected skin on the computer-assisted image analysis. Interestingly, there was increased ER beta find more expression in the dermal lesions especially around small blood vessels and fibroblast-like cells compared with unaffected dermis on the semi-quantitative analysis. However, there was no significant difference in the expression of PR between the dermal lesions and unaffected dermis.\n\nConclusion\n\nThe results of this study

may provide useful information for further investigation into the pathogenesis and therapeutic approaches for treating melasma in relation to hormonal factors. The role of ER in the dermis in association with dermal environment such as blood vessels and fibroblasts remains to be further clarified.”
“Comparing the responsiveness over time of the Harris Hip Score (HHS) and the SF-36 in patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty (THA) and assessing variation in the responsiveness of these measures by the number of co-morbidities.\n\nThis prospective study analyzed 335 THA patients Selleckchem JNK inhibitor treated at two southern Taiwan hospitals from 1997 to 2000. Magnitude of change in HRQoL was compared by generalized estimating equation. Bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrapping was used to measure magnitude of change in HHS and SF-36 subscale scores for five different time intervals spanning a 5-year period.\n\nThe analytical results indicated that the pain and physical function subscales of the HHS are more responsive than those of the SF-36 for short-term (within 1 year post-surgery) measurements but are less responsive for long-term measurements. At various follow-up intervals, the HHS and the SF-36 significantly differed in ES of changes in pain and physical function subscale scores for patients with one co-morbidity and for patients with two or more co-morbidities.

In the absence of ligands, FhGAPDH was a mixture of homodimers an

In the absence of ligands, FhGAPDH was a mixture of homodimers and tetramers, as judged by protein-protein crosslinking and analytical gel filtration. The addition of either NAD(+) or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate shifted this equilibrium towards a compact dimer. Thermal scanning fluorirnetry

demonstrated that this form was selleck chemical considerably more stable than the unliganded one. These responses to ligand binding differ from those seen in mammalian enzymes. These differences could be exploited in the discovery of reagents which selectively disrupt the function of FhGAPDH. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rigths reserved.”
“Aims and background. A major challenge in developing antiangiogenic therapies is tumor intrinsic refractoriness and the emergence of treatment-induced resistance. Recently, such resistance is considered to be associated with inflammatory changes in the tumor microenvironment. However, no information has been acquired about the

effect of endostatin on tumor microenvironment in this field. We established two tumor models refractory to endostatin treatment and sought to selleckchem determine the role of inflammatory changes in the development of tumor refractoriness to antiangiogenic therapy. Methods. Three xenograft tumor murine models were treated with low-dose endostatin or high-dose endostatin for 10 days. The effect of endostatin on tumor growth was observed, and tumors refractory to endostatin treatment were defined. Flow cytometry were carried out to assess the presence of CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid cells in the peripheral blood and in the tumor. Inflammatory cytokine levels in peripheral blood were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of NF-kappa B, versican and hypoxia-inducible factor-la in the tumor was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Results. LLC and B16F1 tumors were defined as animal models of refractoriness to endostatin treatment. CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid cells were inherently recruited into the peripheral blood and the tumor microenvironment in the LLC tumor-bearing mice, and levels of serum

G-CSF and TNF-alpha were increased along with the progression of tumor growth. In the B16F1 tumor-bearing mice, CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid cells were acquiredly recruited by endostatin Fosbretabulin into the peripheral blood and the tumor microenvironment. Additionally, high levels of G-CSP and TNF-alpha in serum and high expression of NF-kappa B, versican and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha in tumor tissue were found in B16F1 tumor-bearing mice after endostatin administration. Conclusions. A tumor can grow inherently or acquiredly with refractoriness to endostatin treatment in vivo. Recruitment of CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid cells and inflammatory cytokines may play an important role in the development of tumor refractoriness to endostatin anti-angiogenesis.

The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive children w

The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive children was significantly higher in CAR than that in Cameroon and Senegal (5.1% versus 0.7% and 0.2%; P < 0.001). Socioeconomic level, age and country were LY2090314 cost factors associated with the presence of anti-HBc.\n\nConclusions: Passive transfer of anti-HBc maternal antibodies versus HBV exposure could be differentiated as early as 12 months of

age. The low prevalence of anti-HBc and hepatitis B surface antigen among children born after the integration of HBV vaccine in the EPI in Cameroon and Senegal suggests a positive impact of HBV vaccination.”
“Purpose: The occurrence of burnout syndrome is strongly associated with and modulated by multiple personality and environmental factors. In Poland, nurses experience a discrepancy between the demands, expectations and Vorinostat ic50 social status of the position of their profession and low salaries. Such a situation provokes frustration and depression, and further leads to problems of adaptation including burnout syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of burnout syndrome among nurses

working in general surgery and surgical oncology specialties.\n\nMethods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. It was undertaken in the largest Hospital in the Pomeranian region of Poland. The participants included 60 nurses working in two departments: General Surgery and Surgical Oncology.

The study was based upon an anonymous self-test composed of a questionnaire and three psychological measures: Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Psychological Burden Scale and a self-constructed questionnaire on job satisfaction.\n\nResults: Intensity of burnout syndrome was significantly higher among oncology nurses than among surgical ones. There was also a strong but not significant trend towards higher Psychological Burden Scale in the group of oncology nurses.\n\nConclusions: The study revealed a high degree of emotional burden and burnout in nurses working in the study hospital suggesting that nurses are at great occupational risk. The findings Torin 1 chemical structure of the study provide evidence of the potential need to restructure the system and suggest that nurses need more control of their work including a higher degree of involvement in clinical decision-making. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: isolated sphenoid sinus disease (ISSD) is rare. Fungus ball (FB)is the third most common ISSD.We analysed the characteristics of isolated sphenoid FB based on demographic data, presenting symptoms, preoperative computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and treatment outcomes. Methodology: From 1999 to 2012, 29 patients were identified with isolated sphenoid FB.

RESULTS: The tidal volume fell within the standard range (400 600

RESULTS: The tidal volume fell within the standard range (400 600 mL) for 25.6% of breaths (0.6-45 breaths) using manual BVM ventilation, and for 28.6% of breaths (0.3-80 breaths) using the automatic manually triggered device (EasyCPR)

(P smaller than .0002). Peak inspiratory airway pressure was lower using the automatic manually triggered device (EasyCPR) (10.6 +/- 5 vs 15.9 +/- 10 cm H2O, P smaller than .001). The ventilation rate fell consistently within the guidelines, in the case of the automatic manually triggered device (EasyCPR) Combretastatin A4 only (10.3 +/- 2 vs 17.6 +/- 6, P smaller than .001). Significant pulmonary overdistention was observed when using the manual BVM device during the normal and H 89 obstructive sequences. The nurses and paramedics considered the ergonomics of the automatic manually triggered device (EasyCPR) to be better than those of the manual device. CONCLUSIONS: The use of an automatic manually triggered device may improve ventilation efficiency and decrease the risk of pulmonary overdistention, while decreasing the ventilation rate.”
“Background: The Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) is a member of the Characiform family native to the Prata Basin (South America) and a target for the aquaculture industry. A limitation for the development of a selective breeding program for this species is a lack of available genetic information.

The primary objectives of the present study were 1) to increase the genetic resources available for the species, 2) to exploit the anatomical separation of myotomal fibres types to compare the transcriptomes of slow and fast muscle phenotypes and 3) to systematically investigate the expression of Ubiquitin PLX4032 Specific Protease (USP) family members in fast and slow muscle in response to fasting and refeeding. Results: We generated 0.6 Tb of pair-end reads from slow and fast skeletal muscle libraries. Over 665 million reads were assembled into 504,065 contigs with an average length of 1,334 bp and N50 = 2,772 bp. We successfully annotated nearly 47% of the

transcriptome and identified around 15,000 unique genes and over 8000 complete coding sequences. 319 KEGG metabolic pathways were also annotated and 380 putative microsatellites were identified. 956 and 604 genes were differentially expressed between slow and fast skeletal muscle, respectively. 442 paralogues pairs arising from the teleost-specific whole genome duplication were identified, with the majority showing different expression patterns between fibres types (301 in slow and 245 in fast skeletal muscle). 45 members of the USP family were identified in the transcriptome. Transcript levels were quantified by qPCR in a separate fasting and refeeding experiment. USP genes in fast muscle showed a similar transient increase in expression with fasting as the better characterized E3 ubiquitin ligases.

Results: BT was detected in 33% of the patients (n = 12) Postope

Results: BT was detected in 33% of the patients (n = 12). Postoperative infections were present in 22.2% of the patients (n = 8). A significant statistical difference was found between postoperative infections in patients with BT evidence (41.6%), when compared with patients without BT (12.5%; p = 0.047). Bacteria isolated from infection sites were the same as those cultured in MLN in 40% of the cases (n = 2 of

5), allowing us to establish causality between BT and postoperative infection.

Conclusions: There is higher risk of BT in trauma patients, and it is associated with a significant increase of postoperative infections. An abdominal trauma index >= 10 was found to be associated with the development of BT. This is the first study describing BT among patients with abdominal trauma, where causality is confirmed at molecular level.”
“The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of balloon-expandable metallic NVP-LDE225 concentration stents in the treatment of Sapitinib cell line children with congenital tracheal stenosis in whom conventional therapy has failed. From 2010 to 2011, balloon-expandable metallic stents were implanted into the trachea of eight infants aged 2-20 months in

the paediatric intensive care unit. The infants had severe airway obstruction caused by congenital tracheal stenosis. Tracheal stents were placed after intraluminal balloon dilatation of the tracheal stenosis, inserted with balloon Selleck YAP-TEAD Inhibitor 1 catheters and implanted into the desired position bronchoscopically.

The stents were 12 to 29 mm long and 4 mm in diameter. Seven children were relieved of airway obstruction after this procedure. However, a child died due to severe sepsis after the placement of bronchial stents. No granulation tissue developed over the stents in any of the children. Stents have been in place for 1-6 months after insertion without any other complication. Balloon-expandable metallic stents are effective in relieving airway obstruction by congenital tracheal stenosis in children. This technique may provide an important remedy for congenital tracheal stenosis in children.”
“P>Periumbilical parasitic thumbprint purpura may be a presenting sign of hyperinfection strongyloidiasis in the immunocompromised host. We report a case of fatal hyperinfection strongyloidiasis acquired from a cadaveric renal allograft, diagnosed by the pathognomonic periumbilical thumbprint purpuric eruption, confirmed by skin biopsy and laboratory testing.”
“Background: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has demonstrated great potential for forestalling cardiovascular collapse and improving outcomes in the setting of severe hemorrhagic shock (HS). We used an established mouse model of severe HS to study the response of interrelated cardiac-signaling proteins p38, HspB1, and Akt to shock, resuscitation, and cardioprotective TH.

Methods: Adult female C57BL6/J mice were bled and maintained at a mean arterial pressure of 35 mm Hg.

Graft reconstruction also increased contact areas beyond the late

Graft reconstruction also increased contact areas beyond the lateral ligament-deficient conditions but altered center-of-pressure excursion patterns relative to the intact condition.

Conclusions: No lateral ankle ligament reconstruction completely restored native contact mechanics of the ankle joint

and hindfoot motion patterns.”
“Introduction ON-01910 and objectives. The aim was to assess the cost-effectiveness of a genetic screening program for first-degree relatives of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), followed by treatment when necessary, compared with the alternative of no screening.

Methods. The cost-effectiveness analysis modeled the effect of statin treatment on individuals who were diagnosed with FH after genetic screening. The impact of uncertainty was evaluated using univariate probabilistic selleck chemical sensitivity analysis. The alternate strategy considered was no screening. In the cost-effectiveness analysis, the number of life-years

gained (LYG) was regarded as the health outcome and the costs of screening, statin treatment, specialist consultations and hospital visits were all included. In addition, the expected value of perfect information was calculated as part of the sensitivity analysis.

Results. In the base case, the incremental cost of the screening program for close relatives was 3423 euros per LYG. Although the sensitivity analysis gave a range of results, the conclusions were not affected by changes in the parameters considered. The screening program was found to be better than the alternative considered at a probability level of 95% if the acceptable level of health-care costs was at least 7400 euros; per LYG.

Conclusions. This analysis indicates that a genetic screening program, supplemented by treatment, for the close relatives of individuals with FH is preferable to the alternative of no screening in terms of incremental cost-effectiveness.”
“Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are a group of organochlorinated compounds exhibiting dioxin-like

properties. Previously published data showed the direct action of PCN-rich Halowax 1051 on ovarian follicular steroidogenesis. Taking into consideration that the observed biological effects DMXAA cell line of PCNs may be frequently side effects of metabolites generated by their detoxification, the aim of this study was to determine the activity and expression of enzymes involved in phase I (cytochrome P450, family 1 (CYP1A1)) and phase II (sulfotransferase (SULT1A) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)) detoxification metabolism. Cocultures of granulosa and theca interna cells collected from sexually mature pigs were exposed to 1 pg/mL to 10 ng/mL of Halowax 1051 for 1 to 48 hours, after which levels and activities of CYP1A1, SULT1A, and COMT were measured. Dose-dependent increases of CYP1A1 activity and expression were observed. High doses of Halowax 1051 were inhibitory to COMT and SULT1A activity and reduced their protein levels.