(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics [doi:10 1063/1 3533953]“<

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3533953]“
“Rett syndrome is characterized by the development of stereotypic hand movements and seizures, which are often difficult to treat. Previous studies have shown conflicting results during add-on folinic acid. Here, the authors reevaluate the response to folinic acid in terms of epilepsy control and electroencephalography features. They performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover

trial, with a follow-up of more than 2 years. Twelve girls with Rett syndrome participated, comparable in clinical stage and disease severity. The Rett syndrome patients were given either folinic acid or placebo, for 1 year each. Only 3 girls benefited to some extent: 2 had a reduction and/or decrease in seizures, and all 3 showed some decreased epileptiform activity on electroencephalography during the addition of folinic acid. Despite this, antiepileptic drugs were LY3023414 research buy adjusted. Because the effect of added folinic acid was limited and did not prevent antiepileptic drug increase, the authors do not recommend adding on folinic acid in Rett syndrome girls with epilepsy.”
“Purpose: To demonstrate

the feasibility of using focused NU7026 ultrasound to enhance delivery of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) to glioblastomas in rats with induced tumors and determine if such an approach increases treatment efficacy.

Materials and Methods: All animal experiments were approved by the animal committee and adhered to the experimental animal care guidelines. A 400-kHz focused ultrasound generator was used to transcranially disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in rat brains by delivering burst-tone ultrasound energy in the presence of microbubbles. The process was monitored in vivo by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Cultured C6 glioma cells implanted in Sprague-Dawley rats were used as the tumor model. BCNU (13.5 mg/kg) was administered intravenously and its concentration in brains was quantified by using high-performance liquid

chromatography. MR imaging was used to evaluate the effect of treatments longitudinally, including analysis Nocodazole of tumor progression and animal survival, and brain tissues were histologically examined. Methods including the two-tailed unpaired t test and the Mantel-Cox test were used for statistical analyses, with a significance level of .05.

Results: Focused ultrasound significantly enhanced the penetration of BCNU through the BBB in normal (by 340%) and tumor-implanted (by 202%) brains without causing hemorrhaging. Treatment of tumor-implanted rats with focused ultrasound alone had no beneficial effect on tumor progression or on animal survival up to 60 days. Administration of BCNU only transiently controlled tumor progression; nevertheless, relative to untreated controls, animal survival was improved by treatment with BCNU alone (increase in median survival time [IST(median)], 15.7%, P =.023).

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