For each activity, the frequency, duration
in minutes, and MET score were multiplied and then divided by 14 days (i.e., (frequency × duration × MET)/14). The minutes spent per activity per day were summed to a total physical activity score (minutes/day × MET). For example, a participant who walks outside for 60 min four times per 2 weeks (4 × 60 × 3.5/14 = 60) and does light SBI-0206965 in vivo household work for 30 min per day (14 × 30 × 2.5/14 = 75) has a physical activity score of 135 min/day × MET. Potential effect modifiers Physical functioning was measured by physical performance and functional limitations. Physical performance was measured using the chair stands test (time needed to stand up from a chair and sit down for five times), the walk test (time needed to walk 3 m, turn 180°, and walk back), and the tandem stand (the participant stands unsupported with one foot behind the other (heel against toe) up to 10 s) [23, 29]. In order to calculate a total physical performance score, the time needed for the chair stands and walk test were categorized into quartiles (1 = slowest, 4 = fastest). For the tandem stand, 2
points were scored when able to hold for 3 to 9 s, and 4 points for 10 s. For each test, the score of 0 was assigned when the participant was unable to complete the test. The three scores were summed (range 0–12), a score of 12 representing optimal physical performance. Functional Ferrostatin-1 research buy limitations were assessed using a validated questionnaire about the degree of difficulty with climbing stairs, walking 5 min outdoors without resting, getting PF-01367338 concentration over up and sitting down
in a chair, dressing and undressing oneself, cutting one’s toenails, and using own or public transportation . The scores on these six items were dichotomized (0 = no difficulty, 1 = at least some difficulty) and summed (range 0–6). A score of 6 indicates difficulties with all six activities. We dichotomized both measures, because, in case of a significant interaction with physical activity, further analyses would have to be stratified into low and high physical functioning, and stratification for more than two groups would have severely decreased the power to detect a significant association between physical activity and fall risk. Physical performance was dichotomized using the median score of 7 as the cut-off value (0–7 vs 8–12). Functional limitations were dichotomized using the median score of 1 as a cut-off value (0 vs ≥1 limitations). Confounders BMI (Body Mass Index) was calculated as weight (kilograms)/height (square meter). The number of chronic diseases was assessed using self-reports on chronic diseases, which included chronic nonspecific lung diseases, cardiac diseases, vascular diseases, stroke, diabetes mellitus, malignant neoplasms, and joint disorders (i.e., osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis; range 0–7) . Medication use was assessed by recording the names of the medications directly from the containers.