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available evidences; EB, MDM, FC, DG, FC, PC, and MM drafted the manuscript; all authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Gallbladder cancer is a relatively rare but terminal malignancy occurring predominantly in elderly women. It accounts for nearly two-thirds of biliary tract cancers, making it the most common primary biliary cancer and the fifth most common cancer of the gastrointestinal tract [1, 2]. More than 85% of gallbladder cancers belong to adenocarcinomas that are often well or moderately differentiated, and the remaining 15% are squamous, adenosquamous or undifferentiated carcinomas. Surgery is the only recommended treatment currently available. However, more than 70% of cases are un-resectable due to local invasion into critical structures or metastasis beyond regional confines.