Moreover, all the treatment with GA, UVB, and GA + UVB in HaCaT c

Moreover, all the treatment with GA, UVB, and GA + UVB in HaCaT cells induced apoptosis. We further demonstrated that GA had synergistic apoptotic effect in human keratinocytes. GA and UVB both had effects oil the decline of MMP and

increase of ROS release, and GA had synergistic increase in the level of ROS in UVB-treated HaCaT cells. Besides, co-treatment with GA and UVB had synergistic effect on apoptosis through the over-expressions of Bax, p21, p53, caspases-3, -4, -9, Endo G and AIF, and confocal microscopy disclosed translocation of AIF and Endo selleck chemicals llc G from cytoplasm to the nucleus. Therefore, apoptosis induced by co-treatment by GA + UVB was initiated and executed by multiple pathways including mitochondria- and ER-dependent, and caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways.

Conclusion: We demonstrated that GA, UVB, GA + UVB inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells.

The mechanisms of apoptosis induced by co-treatment of GA and UVB involve multiple pathways. The synergistic photo-toxicity may be related to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in UVB-treated HaCaT cells. These results highlight the potential adverse effects of GA-containing cosmetic agents on human skin. (C) 2011 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of a low-radiation-dose digital tomosynthesis (DTS) technique with that of conventional radiography in the detection of lung lesions in patients with pulmonary mycobacterial disease.

Materials and selleck products Methods: The institutional review board approved this study, and all patients provided

informed consent. In this study, 100 patients (65 study patients, 35 control patients) underwent multidetector computed tomography (CT), chest MDV3100 Endocrinology & Hormones inhibitor radiography, and low-dose DTS (effective doses: 3.4, 0.02, and 0.05 mSv, respectively). Two radiologists evaluated radiographs and DTS images for the presence of parenchymal lesions and the number of cavities in each patient; CT served as the reference standard. Wilcoxon signed rank and McNemar tests and k statistics were used.

Results: The accuracies of DTS and radiography in depicting mycobacterial disease were 97% and 89%, respectively, for observer 1 (P = .039) and 99% and 93%, respectively, for observer 2 (P = .031). The accuracies of DTS and radiography in depicting each lesion type were, respectively, 95% and 77% for bronchiolitis, 92% and 76% for nodules, 86% and 79% for consolidation, and 93% and 70% for cavities. Interobserver agreement with DTS (k = 0.62-0.94) was superior to that with radiography (k = 0.46-0.62). Of a total of 141 cavities found with CT, means of 27 (19%) cavities at chest radiography and 108 (77%) cavities at DTS (P < .01) were detected by the two observers.

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