Neurons in CA2-4 fields and DG, generally spared from classic NFT

Neurons in CA2-4 fields and DG, generally spared from classic NFT pathology development in AD, exhibited markedly increased UBL immunoreactivity in the nucleoplasm in Braak stages III-IV and V-VI AD cases compared to the Braak 0-I-II group. The reason for this change is unknown, but it may be influenced by age differences

between Braak groups, since the Braak stage 0-I-II (non-AD) group trended toward being younger than both the Braak stage III-IV and Braak stage V-VI AD groups. Other factors, including nucleotide polymorphisms in the ubiquilin gene, may contribute to the observed differences and warrant future clinical-genetic-pathological studies. Genetic abnormalities in Fer-1 price UBL-1 were reported to associate with increased risk[20] and age of onset and duration[21] of AD, although this association was not replicated in all studies.[22] Because Braak staged groups represent a continuum, rather than a stepwise progression, of NFT pathology, the large variability in UBL intensity ratios in the Braak stage III-IV group, particularly in the CA1 region, is likely due to variability in the extent of pathologic changes, and UBL expression, in individual

pyramidal neurons. The functional relevance of the changes in the subcellular localization of UBL, and their association with different types of NFT, is Meloxicam unknown but it may reflect a response, compensatory or dysregulatory, of the ubiquitin-proteosome system to increased cellular stress this website due to accumulation of aggregated and heavily phosphorylated proteins, especially

tau. Our observation of increased UBL immunoreactivity in X-34-positive eNFT is particularly intriguing considering that ubiquitin, a major component of NFT paired helical filaments in AD,[23, 24] is largely absent from eNFT.[23, 25, 26] These changes may occur in relation to ubiquitin-proteosome dysfunction or, alternatively, they may reflect altered antigenic profiles of these proteins in eNFT.[27] The observation of UBL immunoreactivity in X-34-positive neuritic plaques in advanced Braak stages further suggests a relationship between UBL and tau changes, and warrants further exploration. Furthermore, the source of the fibers that comprise UBL immunoreactive dystrophic neurites, and the significance of these changes in the pathogenesis of neuritic plaques, is unknown. Further investigation is also warranted regarding the observation of UBL immunoreactive cells with the morphological appearance of microglia and oligodendrocytes in the hippocampus of two AD cases, especially when considering that one case had a family history of AD.

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