The anxiogenic drug yohimbine, which causes stress-like responses

The anxiogenic drug yohimbine, which causes stress-like responses in humans and non-humans, reliably reinstates alcohol and food seeking in a rat relapse model.

Yohimibine is a prototypical alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist, but results from studies on noradrenaline’s role in yohimbine-induced reinstatement of drug and food seeking are inconclusive. Here, we further addressed this issue by studying the effect of the alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin and the alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist guanfacine on yohimbine-induced reinstatement.

In click here exp. 1, we trained rats to self-administer alcohol (12% w/v, 1 h/day), and after extinction of alcohol-reinforced lever pressing, we tested prazosin’s (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/kg, i.p.) or guanfacine’s (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) effect on yohimbine (1.25 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced reinstatement; we also examined prazosin’s effect on intermittent-footshock-stress-induced reinstatement. In exp. 2, we trained food-restricted rats to self-administer 45 mg food pellets and first examined prazosin’s or guanfacine’s effects on food-reinforced responding, and then, after extinction of lever presses, on yohimbine-induced reinstatement.

Prazosin Tanespimycin chemical structure (0.5-2.0 mg/kg) blocked yohimbine-induced reinstatement

of food and alcohol seeking, as well as footshock-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. Guanfacine attenuated yohimbine-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking at the highest dose (0.5 mg/kg), but its effect on yohimbine-induced reinstatement of food seeking was not significant. Neither prazosin nor guanfacine affected high-rate food-reinforced responding.

Results demonstrate an important role of postsynaptic alpha-1 adrenoceptors in stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol and food seeking.”
“Background Findings from family and twin studies suggest that genetic contributions to psychiatric disorders do not in all cases map to present diagnostic categories. We aimed to identify specific variants underlying genetic effects shared between the five selleck products disorders in the Psychiatric

Genomics Consortium: autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia.

Methods We analysed genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for the five disorders in 33 332 cases and 27 888 controls of European ancestory. To characterise allelic effects on each disorder, we applied a multinomial logistic regression procedure with model selection to identify the best-fitting model of relations between genotype and phenotype. We examined cross-disorder effects of genome-wide significant loci previously identified for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and used polygenic risk-score analysis to examine such effects from a broader set of common variants. We undertook pathway analyses to establish the biological associations underlying genetic overlap for the five disorders.

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