To systematically investigate the body-fluid-specific expression

To systematically investigate the body-fluid-specific expression of mRNAs and find novel mRNA markers for forensic body fluid identification, we performed DNA microarray experiment with 24 Korean body fluid samples. Shannon entropy and Q-values were calculated for each gene, and 137 body-fluid-specific candidate genes were selected. By applying more stringent criteria, we further selected 28 candidate genes and validated them by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. As a result, we suggest a novel combination of four body-fluid-specific mRNA makers: PPBP for blood, FDCSP for saliva, MSMB

for semen and MSLN for vaginal secretion. Multiplex qRT-PCR assay was designed using the four mRNA markers and DNA/RNA co-extraction method was tested for

forensic use. This study will provide a thorough this website examination of body-fluid-specifically expressed mRNAs, which will enlarge the possibility of practical use of RNA for forensic purpose. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We investigated local gene flow in a high-density wolf (Canis lupus) population of the Italian Apennines, where no effective barrier to wolf dispersal was present. From 1998 to 2004 we examined wolf carcasses and non-invasively collected samples, focusing on three mountain districts, separated by two valleys, where wolf packs showed high spatial stability. Using nine autosomal microsatellites we successfully genotyped 177 samples, achieving the identification of 74 wolves. Genetic relatedness steeply decreased with increasing distance between sampling areas, thus suggesting that

short-distance interpack migration is infrequent in this population. In addition, no individual from a central pack under intensive monitoring was sampled in the range of the surrounding packs over a 4-year period. The limited short-distance gene flow resulted in a cryptic genetic structure, which was revealed by Bayesian analysis. A different GDC-0994 datasheet genetic cluster was found in each of the three mountain areas, and a small proportion of first-generation immigrants was detected. Overall, the present study suggests that local genetic differentiation in Italian wolves might arise from high spatial stability of packs and can be favoured by a combination of long-range dispersal, the attitude to mate between unrelated individuals and a high young mortality rate.”
“Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize a variety of microbial products and induce defense responses. Pathogen sensing by TLRs occurs either on the cell surface or in endolysosomes. TLR-dependent responses are greatly influenced by the site of pathogen sensing. TLR heterodimers TLR1/TLR2 and TLR2/TLR6 recognize tri- or diacylated microbial lipopeptides, respectively. Although TLR1, 2 and 6 are believed to localize on the cell surface of immune cells, little is known about where lipopeptides are signaled. In this study, we established mAbs to TLR1, 2 and 6.

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