Upon having signed a written informed consent the following inclu

Upon having signed a written informed consent the following inclusion criteria were verified: The subjects had to be German-speaking Swiss residents, had to stay in a resource-limited destination with a high risk of TD21 between 1 and 8 weeks, but in total no longer than 12 weeks abroad when the 6 months following the index travel were included. Pregnant women, those who planned to use antibiotics for prophylaxis abroad, including doxycycline to prevent malaria, and those with severe chronic illness [anemia, selleck compound cancer, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), other diseases related to immunosuppression or immunosuppressive

medication] were excluded. Additionally, persons with a history of previous gastrointestinal surgery, functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), organic gastrointestinal disorders, unresolved diarrhea, or diarrhea lasting over 14 days within the 4-month pre-travel period, and lastly, those with undiagnosed IBS fulfilling Rome III criteria prior to travel were also excluded.

Following the recruitment all subjects received Compound C standard pre-travel health advice including information on basic preventive measures and on treatment options against diarrhea. IBS assessment was performed according to the Rome III criteria2; if IBS was associated with TD on the index trip it was defined as pIBS,22 while other new IBS cases were labeled unselected IBS.23 TD and pre-travel diarrhea were defined as three or more unformed stools within 24 hours with or without accompanying symptoms.24 A new TD episode had to be separated by a symptom-free interval of at least 72 hours. Continents and subcontinents were grouped according to the United Nations World Migrant Stock.25 The country of origin was the one in which the subject spent the first 5 years of life. “Newcomers”

were visiting any resource-limited travel region for the first time. The main categories of the International Classification Roflumilast of Diseases (ICD-10 2007) were used for co-medication and concomitant diseases. Allergies, including allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and hymenoptera allergy, formed a separate disease entity. These were self-reported by the study subjects, but a diagnosis by a medical doctor was requested. Occurrence of major adverse life events14 included death or a major illness of a close family member or friend, loss of job or business failure, marital separation or divorce, major personal illness, or injury experienced in the 12 months pre-travel. Three questionnaires were distributed: Pre-travel Q1 consisting of 30 items was collected at enrollment and aimed at determining travel characteristics (duration of stay, destination, purpose, newcomer), medical and socio-demographic predictors [including gender, age, education, comorbidity and medication, level of stress (four-scale rating), major adverse life events, height and body weight, allergies, and country of origin].

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