DPYSL3 expression levels in patients with distant
metastasis (stage IV) were significantly elevated compared with patients with localized GC (stage I-III), implying that DPYSL3 upregulation was an important determinant step in the GC progression. Consequently, high expression level of DPYSL3 mRNA in GC tissues was strongly associated with shortened survival and was identified BLZ945 solubility dmso as an independent prognostic factor. These results indicated that DPYSL3 upregulation may contribute to GC progression rather than carcinogenesis. Because DPYSL3 has been reported to play a role in cell adhesion and be a metastatic modulator, the correlations between expression status of DPYSL3 and metastasis were analyzed. Patients with upregulated DPYSL3 had a significantly higher prevalence of lymph node metastasis, overall distant metastasis and peritoneal dissemination, indicating
that DPYSL3 is a metastasis facilitator of GC, and high expression of DPYSL3 may predict the metastatic behavior associated with an invasive GC phenotype. Data from the expression analysis of interacting genes also support the hypothesis that DPYSL3 has an oncogenic function in GC as with pancreatic cancer . Because GC is considered a biologically heterogeneous disease, and genetic backgrounds can differ according to GC subtype [30-33], a subgroup analysis was conducted. Expression status of DPYSL3 was similar across tumor location (entire, upper third, middle third and lower third). In addition, patients with high expression level this website of DPYSL3 mRNA in GCs tended to have a shorter survival both in patient groups of differentiated and undifferentiated GCs. These findings indicated that DPYSL3
acts similarly in all types of GC. Although further investigation will be necessary aminophylline to clarify the underlying molecular mechanism that connects DPYSL3 upregulation directly to GSI-IX cost malignant behavior, our findings may offer valuable insight for the specific management of GC patients. Taken together, DPYSL3 can be used in clinical practice as follows: 1) DPYSL3 expression levels in the biopsy tissue obtained using endoscopic surveillance samples may identify patients in need of intensive systemic treatment; and 2) DPYSL3 expression levels in the surgical specimen may be useful for the prediction of an adverse prognosis, also aiding in determining an appropriate therapeutic strategy. Conclusion DPYSL3 acts as a facilitator of malignant behavior of GC. High expression level of DPYSL3 in GC tissues may represent a promising biomarker for the malignant behavior of GC. Acknowledgements The authors thank Naoki Iwata for his support to collect clinical data. Additional file Additional file 1: Table S1. Primers and annealing temperature. References 1. Jemal A, Bray F, Center MM, Ferlay J, Ward E, Forman D: Global cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 2011, 61:69–90.PubMedCrossRef 2.