In a passive viewing sequence we compared gaze times (an index of focal attention) on faces/objects
vs. background before and after viewers had seen the undegraded photographs. In an active viewing PF299804 purchase sequence, we compared how many faces/objects were identified pre- and post-exposure. Behavioural and gaze tracking data showed significantly reduced effects of prior knowledge on the conscious perception of degraded faces, but not objects in the ASC group. Implications for future work on the underlying mechanisms, at the cognitive and neurofunctional levels, are discussed. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Understanding the underlying qualitative features of memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can provide critical information for early detection of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study sought to investigate
the utility of both learning and retention measures in (a) the diagnosis of MCI, (b) predicting progression to AD, and (c) examining their underlying brain morphometric correlates. A total of 607 participants were assigned to three MCI groups (high learning-low retention; low learning-high retention; low learning-low retention) and one control group (high learning-high retention) based on scores above or below a 1.5 SD cutoff on learning and retention indices buy Fosbretabulin of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Our results demonstrated that MCI individuals Tubastatin A with predominantly a learning deficit showed a widespread pattern of gray matter loss at baseline, whereas individuals with a retention deficit showed more focal gray matter loss. Moreover, either learning or retention measures provided good predictive value for longitudinal clinical outcome over two years, although impaired learning had modestly better predictive power than impaired retention. As expected, impairments in both
measures provided the best predictive power. Thus, the conventional practice of relying solely on the use of delayed recall or retention measures in studies of amnestic MCI misses an important subset of older adults at risk of developing AD. Overall. our results highlight the importance of including learning measures in addition to retention measures when making a diagnosis of MCI and for predicting clinical outcome. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background Governments need to increase the proportion of the population in work in most developed countries because of ageing populations. We investigated longitudinally how self-perceived health is affected by work and retirement in older workers.
Methods We examined trajectories of self-rated health in 14714 employees (11581 [79%] men) from the French national gas and electricity company, the GAZEL cohort, for up to 7 years before and 7 years after retirement, with yearly measurements from 1989 to 2007.