No significant interface response in the S-W result has been buy Thiazovivin previously observed , and the discrepancy may be a result of the
different annealing environments (air vs. N2). Annealing in air may lead to a thicker interface oxide (SiO x ) resulting in more evident responses in the DBRA result. The different slopes of the Al2O3 segment of the three samples indicated that the defect types or chemical environments of these samples were different. The three lines crossed one another to avoid passing through a single point of bulk sample without defects, indicating that each of the samples had more than two types of defect. As mentioned in the section ‘DBAR analysis at different annealing temperatures,’ the S Pinometostat in vivo parameter was mainly influenced by Al and neutral O vacancies. Thus, residual C during deposition and O-H bond content also possibly MLN2238 manufacturer influenced the S-W line slope. Residual C varied with the annealing temperature and may have thus influenced the environment of Al vacancies, although further investigations are needed. A thinner sample was prepared to understand the microstructure of the Al2O3/Si samples, which showed a three-layered structure in DBAR analysis. The 6-nm-thick sample was obtained using thermal ALD and observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The result in Figure 6 shows three
layers, namely Si, Al2O3, and Si-Al2O3 interface layers, which have been reported for nonstoichiometric silica (SiO x ) [6, 20, 21]. Figure 6 TEM image of aluminum oxide films prepared using thermal ALD. The fitted S parameter
can be clearly analyzed in different parts of a film to gain accurate information from DBAR spectroscopy. In this study, the energy of injected positrons had a different distribution at the positron incident energy of the X-axis in the S-E plot. The positrons also reached different layers of the film. Thus, the S parameter of each point in the S-E plot contained integrated information on multiple layers. The S parameter was separated in different layers, and the density/type of vacancies was analyzed at different positions in the film. The S-E plot was fitted using the VEPFIT program to calculate the S parameter from different layers using a four-layered Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mode, which corresponded to the surface/Al2O3/SiO x /Si structure observed by TEM. The obtained S parameter is shown in Figure 7. The S parameter in the Al2O3 films decreased with increased temperature, indicating that the vacancy density in the Al2O3 film decreased with increased annealing temperature. The S parameter was much lower in the SiO x layer than that in Al2O3 and the Si substrate. The S parameter also decreased with increased annealing temperature, which probably corresponded with the dominant Pb defect that decreased with increased annealing temperature .