The regulation of p27Kip1 by n-butyrate occurs post-translational

The regulation of p27Kip1 by n-butyrate occurs post-translationally via the suppression of Skp1–Cul1–F-box-protein (SCF) (skp2) ubiquitin ligase that targets p27Kip1 for destruction.40 In the anergy group, BTK inhibitor research buy p27Kip1 might have been already ubiquitinylated or degraded before the addition of n-butyrate. HDAC inhibitors are undergoing clinical trials as antitumour agents. Recent studies highlighted their anti-inflammatory effects through the modulation of dendritic cell function41 and regulatory T-cell numbers and function.42 This study focused on the anergic effects of the HDAC inhibitor n-butyrate on KLH-specific CD4+ T cells.

The results presented describe a mechanism by which p21Cip1 could maintain proliferative unresponsiveness

in anergic CD4+ T cells by interfering with the signalling pathways downstream of the T-cell receptor, particularly through the inhibition of MAPK and prevention of IL-2 synthesis. Aside from T-cell anergy induced by HDAC inhibitors, other anergy-inducing methods such as exposure to anti-CD3 antibody have been shown to up-regulate p21Cip1.43 The in vivo significance of p21Cip1 was underlined in studies selleck products showing that a peptidyl mimic of p21Cip1 inhibited T-cell proliferation and abrogated autoimmune disease development,44 while a p21Cip1 deficiency promoted autoimmune disease and enhanced the expansion of activated/memory T-cells.29,45 By describing an interaction between selleckchem p21Cip1 and MAPK in anergic CD4+ T cells the results provide a mechanism by which p21Cip1 could maintain proliferative unresponsiveness and demonstrate cross-talk between two pathways that regulate the cell cycle in T cells; signalling cascades downstream of T-cell

receptor ligation and basic cell cycle machinery composed of cdk inhibitors. We would like to thank Annick DeLoose for her excellent technical assistance. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation, Arkansas Biosciences Institute and UAMS Graduate Student Research Funds. The authors have no conflict of interests. “
“Citation Chaouat G, Petitbarat M, Dubanchet S, Rahmati M, Ledée N. Tolerance to the Foetal Allograft? Am J Reprod Immunol 2010 In this review, we will detail the concept of tolerance and its history in reproductive immunology. We will then consider whether it applies to the foetal–maternal relationship and discuss the mechanisms involved in non-rejection of the foeto-placental unit. In June 1980, I attended the Gusberg Festschrift, organised by Norbert Gleicher, which resulted in the founding of AJRI and ASRI. The opening lecture by R.E. Billingham was entitled ‘Mechanisms or factors’ and proposed to explain exemption from rejection of the allogeneic foeto-placental unit. For this AJRI celebration issue, ASRI has requested a review on tolerance, a topic of great interest to me since 19741 and the Medawar paradigm.

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