Inhibition of apoptosis impairs influenza virus replication, and it has been suggested that this effect is associated with retention of vRNP in the nucleus, preventing formation of progeny particles . In addition, pro-apoptotic features of the PB1-F2 protein may result in specific depletion of lymphocytes during influenza virus infection, and may limit the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, thus interfering with both innate and adaptive immune www.selleckchem.com/products/byl719.html responses . It is important to note that different mechanisms of disruption of host immune responses
characterize zoonotic, pandemic and seasonal influenza viruses. This calls for further research on their impact on these viruses’ epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics in the human host. Following successful influenza virus infection of human hosts and production and release of progeny viruses from infected cells, the last barriers to be overcome by zoonotic influenza viruses are the human-to-human transmission barriers. These pave the way to the establishment and continued circulation of adapted influenza virus variants in the human population, independently of animal reservoirs. Human-to-human transmission barriers have successfully been crossed by zoonotic influenza viruses only four times since the beginning of last century, and appear to represent the major obstacles for cross-species transmission and adaptation of
zoonotic Veliparib molecular weight influenza viruses to the human host. Acquisition of transmissibility by zoonotic influenza viruses, escape from pre-existing herd immunity and the ability of transmissible variants to be maintained in the human population are the major components of the human-to-human transmission barriers. The initial component of the human-to-human transmission barriers is the efficiency by which zoonotic influenza viruses transmit among human hosts. Viral, host and environmental determinants of influenza virus transmissibility in humans have been identified. Influenza viruses in humans are transmitted
by direct and indirect contact, and via Calpain production and inhalation of aerosols or large droplets  favoured at low temperatures and high relative humidity levels  and . Airborne transmission of influenza virus among mammalian hosts is thought to be mediated by infection of the upper regions of the respiratory tract, resulting in excretion of high viral titers, and facilitated by α2,6 receptor binding affinity of the HA protein , ,  and . The epithelium of the upper regions of the respiratory tract is composed of mostly ciliated epithelial cells, which abundantly express sialic acids with α2,6 linkage to galactose . Accordingly, human influenza viruses bind abundantly to cells in the upper regions of the respiratory tract of humans while attachment of HPAIV H5N1 and other avian influenza viruses is not or rarely detected  and .