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Plant Soil 1993, 149:43–50.CrossRef

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CrossRef 14 Nishimura S, Abrams N, Lewis BA, Halaoui LI, Mallouk

selleck inhibitor CrossRef 14. Nishimura S, Abrams N, Lewis BA, Halaoui LI, Mallouk TE, Benkstein KD, van de Lagemaat J, Frank AJ: Standing wave enhancement of red absorbance and photocurrent in dye-sensitized titanium dioxide photoelectrodes PI3K Inhibitor Library solubility dmso coupled to photonic crystals. J Am Chem Soc 2003,125(20):6306.CrossRef 15. Mihi A, Miguez H: Origin of light-harvesting enhancement in colloidal-photonic-crystal-based dye-sensitized solar cells. J Phys Chem B 2005, 109:15968.CrossRef 16. Agrell HG, Lindgren J, Hagfeldt A: Degradation mechanisms in a dye-sensitized solar cell studied by UV–VIS and IR spectroscopy. Solar Energy 2003, 75:169.CrossRef 17. Ahn JY, Kim JH, Moon KJ, Kim JH, Lee CS, Kim MY, Kang JW, Kim SH: Incorporation of multiwalled

carbon nanotubes into TiO 2 nanowires for enhancing photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells via highly efficient electron transfer. Solar Energy 2013, 92:41.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions KJM, SWL, and YHL contributed equally to this work as first co-authors. KJM, SWL, and YHL fabricated TiO2 pastes, assembled various DSSCs, and made photovoltaic performance measurement. JYA participated in the SEM measurements. SJL and DWL participated in the design and manufacture of condenser lens-based solar concentrator. SHK provided guidance to

check details KJM, SWL, YHL, JYA, and SJL as a supervisor and designed most of this research project. All authors read and approve the final manuscript.”
“Background Graphene, a sp2-hybridized

Flucloronide carbon film with unique properties, has attracted substantial interest in recent years, and it is a candidate for several applications. The carriers in graphene are transported in the π-orbitals that are perpendicular to the surface so the optical transparency of a single layer of graphene can be as high as approximately 97%, and it can exhibit excellent electronic properties with reported mobilities of between 3,000 and 27,000 cm2/V·s [1–3]. Various methods for synthesizing graphene have been developed. One of them is the mechanical exfoliation from highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, but it has low throughput and produces graphene with a limited area [4–7]. Chemical exfoliation is a promising method; it has high throughput and produces graphene flakes from bulk graphite [8]. Sulfuric acid is a common oxidizing agent that reacts strongly with the surface of aromatic carbon compounds to form graphene oxide flakes that are subsequently reduced to graphene [9, 10]. This method forms various defects that degrade the electronic properties of the formed graphene. Another method is the thermal decomposition from SiC substrate. In this case, a Si atom on a SiC surface is exposed to a temperature of 1,050°C to 1,100°C [11, 12]. The epitaxial graphene on SiC has high quality, but the use of an expensive SiC substrate is not practical.

2, lateral resolution 0 25; 10 MHz linear probe: axial resolution

2, lateral resolution 0.25; 10 MHz linear probe: axial resolution 0.154, lateral 0.187; 13 MHz linear probe: axial resolution 0.188, lateral resolution 0.144; 18 MHz linear probe: axial resolution 0.085, lateral resolution 0.104; 20 MHz annular array: axial resolution 0.077, lateral MEK activation resolution 0.094. In our study, we have reviewed 32 series of images obtained from high-frequency ultrasound units and have found 5 sonographic patterns to differentiate

PM from other subcutaneous tumours. In particular, Type 1 and 2 of our classification correspond to the two typical hypoechoic solid nodules, fully calcified and partially calcified respectively, already described in literature. These lesions normally present see more a hypoechoic peripheral rim in a significant number of cases, and rarely, vascular signals with colour Doppler. In our series, 22 lesions exhibited the solid and calcified patterns of type 1 (10 cases) and 2 (12 cases), and diagnosis was confirmed at histopathology. Eight cases (25%) of our series showed internal fluid areas with a thick-wall: 6 complex lesions (type 3) and 2 pseudo-cystic (type 4). Type 4 fluid areas were larger than type 3 and showed a

good transmission of the ultrasound wave, without enhancement of the posterior wall. Histologically, the pseudo-cystic lesions showed huge groups of ghost cells, without stroma, clearly correlated to the sonographic features. Lim et al. [20] described 2 cases out of 17 with little endotumoural liquid-like areas, which the author, and, more recently, Choo et al. [30], considered to be related to degenerative phenomena. We are the first to report the occurrence of real ultrasonographic cystic areas in PM. As pointed

out by some dermatopathologists [31], the tumour originates from a cystic formation of the follicle matrix, with more or less thick walls, depending on the neoplasia evolvement, and with consequential formation of an internal mass of shadow cells, with low vascularisation second and almost absent stroma. Generally, calcifications and signs of inflammation appear belatedly. The homogeneity of pseudo-cystic fluid areas, the lack of internal interfaces and of fibrous support structures, the absence of internal signs with colour Doppler, but without enhancement of the posterior wall, might address the operator to an erroneous diagnosis. The resemblance of sonographic features to so-called sebaceous cysts (epidermal or trichilemmal cysts), might result from the very high frequency probes that we first used in this particular type of dermopathology. Two cases, with a tumour-like pattern (type 5), were indistinguishable from an aggressive neoplasia of the superficial structures; in both patients, the lesions were significantly old and, histologically, displayed chronic flogistic phenomena and fibrosis. Conclusion Based on the above, some remarks can be drawn: 1 -Using very high frequency probes, we have identified five different ultrasound patterns of PM.

Phys Rev Lett 1998, 81:77–80 CrossRef 5 Lodahl P, Floris van Dri

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Among these methods, the hydrothermal method is used to prepare Z

Among these methods, the hydrothermal method is used to prepare ZnO nanorods due to its low cost and simplicity [16, 25, 26]. In order to improve the structural and optical properties of Cu-doped ZnO nanorods, the effect of the Cu precursor is worth clarification. In the study reported here, we have synthesized pure and Cu-doped ZnO nanorods onto a quartz substrate pre-coated with a ZnO seed layer using the hydrothermal method. The main focus has been put on the effect of the copper precursor on the morphology, structural, transmittance,

and photoluminescence properties of the synthesized ZnO nanorods. Methods The nanorod growth was accomplished in two steps: (1) the sputtering of ZnO seed layer to achieve highly aligned Cu-doped #EVP4593 randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# ZnO nanorods [27] and (2) the nanorod growth using the hydrothermal method. Sputtering of ZnO seed layer Prior to the nanorod growth, a 120-nm-thick seed layer of undoped ZnO was deposited onto a quartz substrate using RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Before the deposition of the ZnO seed layer, a surface treatment of the quartz substrate was conducted using acetone, ethanol, and deionized water for 10 min for each at RT and then dried in

air. Pure ZnO (99.999%) with a 50-mm diameter and 5-mm thickness was used as the ZnO target. The seed layer sputtering was accomplished in a mixture of O and Ar gas atmosphere with the gases’ flow rates of 2.5 and 35 sccm, respectively. The base

pressure attained was 10−4 Pa, and the working pressure was 1 Pa during sputtering. The sputtering power was 100 W. In order to remove the contaminants selleck products from the ZnO target, pre-sputtering for 10 min was performed. Finally, the ZnO-sputtered seed layer thin films were annealed at 500°C for 30 min. Nanorod growth Undoped and Cu-doped ZnO nanorods were grown by the hydrothermal method on a quartz substrate seeded with the ZnO thin film using hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) ((CH2)6 N4), zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH3COO)2 · 2H2O), PR-171 and either cupric acetate (Cu(CH3COO)2 · H2O) or cupric nitrate (Cu(NO3)2 · 3H2O) as hydroxide, zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) precursors, respectively. The nanorod growth was accomplished by suspending the substrates in a conical flask containing the aqueous solution that was prepared from zinc acetate (0.025 M) and HMT (0.025 M). Before suspending the samples, the aqueous solution was magnetically stirred for 30 min. The flask that contains the equimolar aqueous solution was placed in a combusting waterbath deposition system at 90°C for 90 min. After the nanorods were grown, the samples were removed from the beakers, rinsed in deionized water several times to remove the unreacted materials, and then finally dried in an oven at 60°C for 2 h. In order to introduce the Cu dopants, either cupric acetate (0.025 M) or cupric nitrate (0.

The level of mRNA for defensins was measured in total RNA prepara

The level of mRNA for defensins was measured in total RNA preparation by quantitative real time PCR as described in Methods. Expression of all genes was normalised to the expression of the endogenous reference gene GAPDH. The expression value in control cells was used as the baseline. Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different. Detection of the hBD2 peptide in human airway epithelial cells by immunofluorescence To determine if defensin peptides were present in the airway epithelial cells Selleckchem Belnacasan exposed to A. fumigatus, the hBD2 peptide was detected by immunofluorescence. Analysis of the hBD9 peptide was not performed since anti-hBD9 antibodies were not available. A549 or 16HBE cells were

cultured on cover slips, subsequently exposed to either SC, RC, HF, latex beads or treated with Il-1β for 18 h, and stained with polyclonal anti-hBD2 antibody as described in Methods. As shown in Figure 7A, hBD2 was detected in the cytoplasm of airway epithelial 16HBE cells exposed learn more to any of the morphotypes of A. fumigatus, but generally not in the untreated control culture or in the cells exposed to the latex beads, except for several individual cells that contained some amount of defensin peptides. These findings are consistent with the inducible expression of hBD2. Staining revealed the punctuated distribution of peptides

in the cytoplasm with a concentration in the perinuclear region. It should be observed that the expression of the hBD2 peptide was not detected in each cell of the sample exposed to A. fumigatus. Quantification of the differences in the number of cells detected with anti-defensin-2 antibody showed that the number of stained cells in the untreated control culture was 8 ± 4%. The percentage of stained cells increased to 32 ± 4.6% after Il-1 β-treatment, to 17 ± 4.5% after exposure to RC, to 28 ± 5.2% after exposure to SC and to 20 ± 5.1% after exposure to HF, while exposure to the latex Tyrosine-protein kinase BLK beads did not affect

defensin expression (9 ± 3.9%) (Figure 7B). Similar results were obtained with A549 cells (data not shown). Figure 7 Localisation of the hBD2 peptide in epithelial bronchial 16HBE cells. 16HBE cells were seeded at 5 × 105 cells per well in 1 ml of DMEM/F12 on 18-mm-diameter cover slips in 12 well plates in triplicate and grown for 16 h at 37°C. After washing the cover slips with PBS-BSA, the cells were exposed to either latex beads, ethanol fixed conidia or ethanol fixed HF for 18 hours. Il-1β was used as a positive control. Following washing with PBS, the cells were fixed with a paraformaldehyde solution for 30 min at 37°C. The slides were then incubated in 1% BSA/PBS-Triton 0.05%, followed by a solution of 10% normal goat serum. After washing, polyclonal rabbit anti-human hBD2 at a dilution of 1:250 was applied as primary antibody overnight at 4°C, followed by incubation with FITC-labelled goat anti-rabbit secondary antibody at a dilution of 1:300 for 4 hours at room temperature.

Table 1 DNA:DNA relatedness percentages between representatives o

Table 1 DNA:DNA relatedness percentages between representatives of two novel Enterobacter species and closely-related species   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 100               2 89(4) 100             3 33(16) 38(10) 100           4 31(17) 33(10) 93(6) 100         5 35(2) 33(9) 35(17) 31(7) 100       6 32(10) 35(2) 59(7) 58(3)

33(2) 100     7 39(9) 41(3) / 61(9) 43(8) 79(6) 100   8 33(8) 31(1) 63(8) 60(14) 33(21) 66(17) 71(2) 100 The data are based on means of at least 4 hybridizations. The values given between brackets are the differences between the reciprocal values. Taxa: 1, Enterobacter oryzendophyticus REICA_032; 2, Enterobacter oryzendophyticus REICA_082T; 3, Enterobacter oryziphilus REICA_142T; 4, Enterobacter oryziphilus REICA_191; 5, Enterobacter cowanii LMG 23569T; 6, Enterobacter radicincitans LMG 23767T; 7, Enterobacter oryzae LMG 24251T; 8, Enterobacter

arachidis LMG 26131T. CH5183284 Furthermore, group-I type strain REICA_142T DNA showed only about 35-60% relatedness with the DNA of the closest relatives E. arachidis LMG 26131T (63% ±8), E radicincitans LMG 23767T (59% ±7) and E. cowanii LMG selleckchem 23569T (35% ±17). This finding is consistent with the contention that the group-I strains indeed form a separate species, within the genus Enterobacter. Similarly, strain REICA_082T genomic DNA revealed relatedness values that were significantly below the 70% cut-off value with that of the closest-related strains E. oryzae LMG 24251T (41% ±3), E. radicincitans LMG 23767T (35% ±2), E. cowanii LMG 23569T (33% ±9) and E. arachidis LMG 26131T (31% ±1) (Table 1). Again, this finding supports our contention that also the group-II strains form a separate species within the genus Enterobacter. It was interesting to note that the DNA-DNA relatedness values between E. radicincitans LMG 23767T and E. oryzae LMG 24251T (79% ±6) and between E. radicincitans LMG 23767T and E. arachidis LMG 26131T (66% ±17), in our experiments, were much higher than those reported by the original authors [3]. Support for the robustness

of our data is provided by the phylogenetic relationships revealed by the rpoB gene sequences, where E. radicincitans D5/23T and E. arachidis Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase Ah-143T were 98.9% similar. These data were further consistent with the cellular fatty acid profile data (see below), which were indistinguishable at strain level. The overall genomic DNA G+C content was determined according to the HPLC method [20] using the DNA prepared for the DNA:DNA hybridization analyses. The values (means of three independent analyses of the same DNA sample) for the selected group-II strains REICA_032 and REICA_082T and group-I strains REICA_142T and REICA_191 were 52.7, 52.9, and 52.1 and 51.7 mol%, respectively. These values are within the lower range of the DNA mol% G + C, i.e. 52–60 %, of all members of the genus Enterobacter[21].